cbg title graphic  

What is CBG?

CBG is short for cannabigerol. It’s often the second or third most common cannabinoid found in medicinal cannabis flowers.  However, concentrations of CBG in new cannabis varieties are sharply increasing due to high demand from consumers and attention from breeders.

It’s now common to find CBG showing up in significant percentages in lab results for the most popular CBD oils. Full-spectrum CBG oil is for sale online and CBG flower can be found in dispensaries.  So, it’s important to know what you should expect from this relatively novel cannabinoid.

Recent CBG medical studies point to exceptional anxiety and pain relief benefits from cannabigerol. In fact, some studies describe effects that are unique to CBG for deep sleep, anxiety, and muscle relaxant effects with no comparable benefit from either CBD, THC or CBN.

This guide is filled with information about CBG. It will show you exactly how CBG’s benefits can be used to change how you feel.

How can CBG help you?  Let’s find out.

The medical studies selected for this guide are published by highly reputable organizations.  They show that CBG may have significant benefits for a range of physical, mental, and emotional conditions.

In this guide, you’ll learn:

  • exactly what CBG is
  • the unique effects of CBG isolate on anxiety and pain relief
  • CBG vs. CBD effects on mood, health, and emotions
  • CBG dosages used in medical studies
  • possible side effects of CBG

If you don’t find the answer you’re looking for, ask your question in a comment below. We’ll search the published studies to see if an answer exists and get back to you.

cbg cannabigerol graphic with molecular structure

What is CBG oil?

CBG is a naturally occurring compound made by all cannabis plants.  CBG oil is made by extracting the CBG cannabinoid from a high CBG cannabis strain. The CBG extract is then diluted in a carrier oil like hemp oil or coconut oil. CBG oil is generally used for anxiety relief, as a painkiller, or as a sleep aid.

CBG is affectionately known as “the mother of all cannabinoids.” All cannabinoids including CBD and THC start out as CBG-A (the acidic form of CBG). As the cannabis plant matures, it chemically transforms nearly all of its CBGA into more familiar cannabinoids like CBD and THC.

Although CBG is the precursor compound of THC (the most intoxicating cannabinoid), CBG non-psychoactive.  CBG hemp flower is highly valued for its strong anxiety and pain relief benefits as well as its potent muscle-relaxing effects.

cbg cannabis plant with flowers

CBG Benefits

Recent medical studies point to what may be significant benefits of CBG for:

  • pain relief
  • inflammation
  • anxiety relief
  • specific types of cancer (3)
  • inflammatory bowel disease (4)
  • neuroprotective properties(5)

While several studies support claims of CBG health benefits, the scope of this new cannabinoid’s exact effects are still under investigation.

  • According to the medical study below published in the journal Carcinogenesis, “CBG appears as a relatively low concentration intermediate in the plant, although recent breeding works have yielded Cannabis chemotypes expressing 100% of their phytocannabinoid content as CBG.”
  • “Older and recent studies support [pain relief effects, regular heart rhythm], antibacterial, antidepressant, and [blood pressuring lowering] actions of CBG.”

cannabigerol price demand study

CBG Mood Benefits

CBG has significant mood-altering properties.

  • CBG’s effects on serotonin and adrenaline uptake may account for its reported acute effects on mood and anxiety.
  • Adrenaline and serotonin have been implicated in causing symptoms of anxiety such as hypervigilance and mood disorders such as depression.
  • In the medical literature, CBG is described as a “highly potent agonist for α2 adrenoceptor and a blocker of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor [which] underscores the potential importance of [CBG] and other alkaloids in the psychoactive profile of cannabis.” (1)


cbg anxiolytic benefits

CBG Products

Breeders are diligently working to increase the concentrations of CBG in hemp flower—some high CBG strains are now achieving nearly 100% cannabigerol content.

  • New CBG strains with higher yields have recently brought the price for consumers down from its peaks when CBG was the most expensive cannabinoid that could be purchased. (6)
  • According to Forbes, the demand for CBG has been extraordinary.

cbg for sale

Types of CBG Products

Many of the higher quality CBD oils and full-spectrum extracts will contain a useful amount of CBG. If you’re interested in CBG isolate products, you’ll be able to find them in several forms.

Different types of CBG available online include:

  • CBG flower
  • CBG oil (extract)
  • CBG wax (concentrate)
  • CBG cream (topical)
  • CBG capsules (extract)

Best Way To Consume CBG

Increase the efficiency of your CBG by pairing it with specific foods for increased absorption or dabbing a CBG concentrate.

  • Taking CBG oil or extract with a high-fat meal or milk can increase cannabinoid absorption by 380%.
  • Dabbing CBG is a 394% more efficient delivery method for cannabinoids compared to smoking a joint.
  • CBG extracts and concentrates are much more efficient ways of consuming CBG than smoking CBG hemp flower.
  • Concentrates like CBG wax and rosins can be dabbed and consumed without combustion.

cbg dab ptsd graphic

CBG derived from hemp is federally legal since the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill. (9)

2018 farm bill

Hemp vs. Marijuana

Hemp and marijuana are—scientifically speaking—the same plant but law enforcement treats them very differently.

  • Hemp and marijuana are both cannabis plants.
  • Cannabis plants are cannabis plants—whether they are called marijuana, hemp, or cannabis, they are all the same plant.
  • The legal distinction between hemp and marijuana is a reference only to the THC content of a specific cannabis plant.

If a cannabis plant has more than 0.3% THC then that plant is a controlled substance and likely illegal under federal law. On the other hand, if a cannabis plant has less than 0.3% THC then that plant is considered “hemp” by law enforcement.

It is federally lawful since 2018 to possess and use the products of any cannabis plant with less than 0.3% THC content, otherwise known as a hemp plant.

cbg vs cbd graphic pill bottles

Legal Status: CBD vs CBG

Cannabis plants produce different cannabinoids (CBD vs CBG) at different concentrations based on genetics and growing conditions.

  • Some varieties of cannabis produce more THC in warmer conditions with stronger sunlight and less THC in colder climates with a shorter growing season.
  • Except for THC, the products of hemp plants like fiber, CBD, and CBG can be extracted, distilled, or processed legally in all 50 states since 2018.
  • CBG is not a controlled substance in the United States or internationally.
  • “Cannabigerol is not scheduled by the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In the United States, it is not a controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act as long as it is not produced from the controlled parts of the cannabis plant.”

cannabigerol farm bill 2018

Quick CBG Science

CBG is known as the “mother of all cannabinoids.”

  • All 120 known cannabinoids start out as the compound CBGA (CBG’s acidic form)
  • As the cannabis plant matures, CBGA is chemically transformed into its final form.
  • At the time of harvest, nearly all CBGA has converted into cannabinoids like CBD, CBC, and THC. (7)
  • Only about 1% of the original CBGA is left after the plant finishes its maturation process.  (8)

cannabinoid chemistry cbga  

New CBG Medical Studies 2020

Universities and NIH researchers are moving quickly to understand the potential health benefits of CBG. 6 new CBG medical studies were started in 2020 alone. 

national institutes of health to investigate minor cannabinoids and terpenes for potential pain-relieving properties press release

CBG vs CBD

Just a couple of years ago CBG was one of the rarest and most expensive cannabinoids available. That’s changed recently with new genetics and the availability of high CBG hemp strains. This once exotic cannabinoid is now available as CBG oil and flower at prices competitive with CBD products.

While studies on the benefits of CBD number in the thousands, CBG has only recently received attention from the medical community so its benefits are somewhat undescribed.  Here’s what we know so far about the similarities and differences between CBG and CBD.

CBG vs CBD: Similarities

CBG and CBD are both cannabinoid compounds with medicinal effects. Medical studies suggest that CBG and CBD may share several of the same benefits.

  • Both CBD and CBG act on the CB2 of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). The ECS is responsible for regulating emotions, cognition, and physical wellbeing.
  • Both CBD and CBG are relaxing but non-psychoactive—neither is habit forming nor addictive.
  • Studies show that CBD and CBG may have anxiety, painkilling, and inflammation relieving benefits.
  • Both CBD and CBG start out at CBGA (cannabigerolic acid) and are then transformed into their final state as the cannabis plant matures.

CBG vs CBD: Differences

There are several CBG benefits for sleep and anxiety that are not available from CBD.

  • CBG interacts with both the CB1 and CB2 receptors while CBD interacts with the CB2 receptor only. The CB1 receptor is most closely associated with the psychoactive effects of THC. CBG may be slightly more psychoactive than CBD due to its interaction with the CB1 receptor.
  • CBG affects how the body uptakes a type of adrenaline called noradrenaline which may have an impact on deep sleep (REM) and a symptom of anxiety called hypervigilance.
  • CBG is the only cannabinoid known to affect noradrenaline uptake in muscle tissue.
  • CBG may have superior muscle relaxing effects compared to CBD

CBG Benefits For Pain Relief

CBG is unusually capable of relieving chronic pain and has significant muscle-relaxing effects.

  • CBG has “more potent” pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties than the cannabinoid THC, according to a medical study published in the journal of Therapeutics And Clinical Risk Management.
  • CBG has significant muscle-relaxing effects. CBG “exhibits GABA uptake inhibition to a greater extent than THC or CBD suggesting possible utilization as a muscle relaxant in spasticity.” (2)
  • GABA uptake inhibition is a chemical measure of a compound’s ability to decrease muscle spasticity or act as a muscle relaxant.
  • GABA uptake inhibition also plays a role in treatments for several anxiety disorders including Social Anxiety Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

image text quoted immediately above image

CBG: Nonaddictive Pain Relief

Conventional pharmaceutical muscle relaxers and painkillers are among the most addicting drugs prescribed by doctors.

  • CBG is not an addictive substance.
  • Hopefully, CBG will be considered a viable alternative for treating chronic pain and muscle spasticity.
  • The addictive nature of opioid-based painkilling medications makes them high-risk.

Unlike opioid-based painkillers, CBG is not:

  • habit-forming
  • intoxicating
  • addictive
  • depressive

CBG also does not have the side effects attributed to opioid-based painkillers like:

  • severe constipation
  • significant irritability
  • catastrophic overdose

cbg cannabis nugs

CBG Benefits: Cancer

CBG may inhibit or slow the growth of some colon cancer tumors, according to a 2014 study published in the medical journal Carcinogenesis. (12)

  • Researchers found that “CBG, a safe non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid [was] able to block TRPM8 channels, exerts [tumor cell destruction in colorectal cancer] as well as chemopreventive (AOM model) and curative (xenograft model) actions in experimental models of colon cancer in vivo.”
  • CBG is not a treatment for cancer but it is a promising compound that may have benefits for cancer treatment in the future.

cannabigerol cancer benefits

Colon cancer is a significant disease in the United States.

  • 101,420 people were diagnosed with colon cancer in 2018 making it a leading cause of cancer in the U.S. (13)
  • The American Cancer Society estimates that “the probability to develop [colorectal cancer during one’s lifetime] is 5.17% for men and 4.78% for women and predicts that this type of cancer cause ~ 50,830 deaths in 2013.”

cannabigerol colon cancer benefits

social anxiety is having difficulty when ordering in a restaurant

CBG Benefits: Anxiety

Medical studies show cannabigerol (CBG) has highly potent effects on hypervigilance and anxiety.

  • CBG has shown significant effects on noradrenaline and serotonin uptake within the nervous system. Noradrenaline and serotonin are believed to play important roles in causing anxiety. CBG is the only known cannabinoid to affect adrenaline uptake.
  • “CBG is a highly potent agonist for a2 adrenoceptor and a blocker of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor” which means that it likely has temporary effects on perception, mood, consciousness, and behavior.
  • Of note here is a reference to CBG as a “psychoactive compound.” CBG is generally described in most literature as a non-psychoactive compound.

cannabigerol study anxiety

Research into CBG benefits for anxiety is still preliminary due to the legacy of cannabis prohibition. However, the medical study above suggests that CBG may have a particularly fast-acting anxiety-relief effect.

compare cannabinoid cbd to cbg

CBG vs. CBD For Anxiety

CBG effects the same nervous system receptors as CBD.

  • Unlike CBD, CBG has the ability to affect adrenaline uptake which is a natural chemical that has been associated with anxiety and hypervigilance.

Whether CBD or CBG has a greater effect on feelings of anxiety is up for debate and may depend on the body chemistry of the consumer.

  • From a consumer perspective, many users who have taken both CBD and CBG believe that CBG has a stronger and faster-acting anti-anxiety effect when compared to CBD.

cbg anxiety study

CBG Benefits: Mental Health

As the research above shows, CBG affects some of the same neurochemical receptors as conventional pharmaceutical medications for anxiety.

  • CBD and CBG act on some of the same chemical receptors in the brain.
  • These include the CB1 and CB2 receptors as well as a key serotonin receptor.
  • Additionally, CBG appears to affect noradrenaline uptake which may account for the fast-acting anxiety relief reported by consumers.

Currently, both CBG and CBD are the focus of intense medical research for their potential effects on anxiety and depression.

ringo lawrence tending to cannabis

CBG And Terpenes For Anxiety

CBG effects on anxiety may be aided by the addition of terpenes with complementary effects.

  • Terpenes are naturally occurring scent compounds produced in the cannabis plant.
  • Terpenes have significant benefits of their own and are the subject of medical research.
  • Terpenes and Cannabinoids like CBG can be taken together to boost the effects of each compound.  That amplification of effect is an example of the cannabis entourage effect.

Some anxiety affecting terpenes are particularly good at boosting CBG but not all terpenes decrease anxiety.

  • If you’re managing anxiety, avoid hemp strains or CBG oil with the terpene guaiol.
  • A medical study has shown a statistically significant correlation between the terpene guaiol and increased feelings of anxiety among medical cannabis patients.
hemp in field at sunset

CBG Benefits: Inflammation

Cannabigerol (CBG) has anti-inflammatory effects with unexpected neurological benefits, according to a new medical study from 2018 published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences. (14)

  • CBG anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects “were reported for CBG and its derivatives in vitro and in vivo in neurodegenerative disease models” including a chronic model of multiple sclerosis, an experimental model of Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. (16)

cannabigerol dementia alzheimers protection

CBG has significant anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits.

  • These effects may act as a neuroprotectant against diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s. (17)
  • “The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of CBG are particularly interesting taking into account that both inflammation and oxidative stress play pivotal roles in neurodegeneration.”

cannabinoid dementia alzheimers benefits

bright green cbg nug

CBG Benefits: Inflammatory Bowel Disease

CBG may have its most significant anti-inflammatory benefits in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBS) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. (15)

  • CBG’s anti-inflammatory benefits may be cancer preventative in the gut.
  • “CBG reduced experimental intestinal inflammation, which is relevant in view of the observation that the risk of developing neoplasia leading to [colorectal cancer] is significantly increased in ulcerative colitis patients.”

cbg inflammatory bowel disease benefits

CBG: Traditional IBD Medicine

For hundreds of years, people have used cannabis and CBG to treat inflammatory bowel disease. (21)

  • Cannabis plants and cannabinoids have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, according to a 2016 medical study published in the journal Gastroenterology And Hepatology.
  • “Phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids derived from the plant), synthetic cannabinoids (artificial compounds with cannabinomimetic effects), and endocannabinoids (endogenous compounds with cannabinomimetic effects) act together on the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which regulates various functions in the body.”

cbg gastrointestinal inflammation

Since the 1990s, patients have described achieving remission of inflammatory bowel disease using medical cannabis. (22)

  • “Anecdotal reports have suggested a therapeutic role for cannabis in the treatment of IBD for hundreds of years.”
  • “A case report from 1990 describes patients with IBD maintaining remission of disease via cannabis use.”

medical cannabis IBD treatment

CBG Benefits: Colitis

CBG may be helpful for relieving ulcerative colitis, according to a 2017 medical study published in the journal Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. (23)

  • The study describes CBG as “capable of reducing nitric oxide production in macrophages and attenuating murine DNBS-induced colitis in both a preventive (pretreatment) model and therapeutic (established colitis) model.”
  • Additionally, the terpene limonene may be a helpful addition to CBG oil for anyone who suffers from colitis.

cbg colitis preventive

CBG Benefits: Crohn’s Disease

CBG may be particularly helpful with specific types of Crohn’s Disease, according to a medical study published in Expert Review of Gastroenterology And Hepatology.

  • The greater endocannabinoid system has a significant impact on colitis.
  • The study noted that CBG may be particularly helpful with certain models of Crohn’s Disease. (24)

cbg crohns benefits

The 2013 medical study below suggests CBG as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease may be considered for clinical trials. (25)

  • The study concludes “CBG attenuated murine colitis, reduced nitric oxide production in macrophages (effect being modulated by the CB2 receptor) and reduced [reactive oxygen production] in intestinal epithelial cells. CBG could be considered for clinical experimentation in IBD patients.”

cannabinoid inflammatory bowel disease therapeutic benefits

CBG Benefits: Glaucoma

CBG may benefit glaucoma by lowering intraocular. (18)

  • “Numerous studies have been conducted confirming that different cannabinoids, including cannabidiol, cannabigerol, endogenous cannabinoids, and some synthetic cannabinoids, can reduce [intraocular pressure] when administered systemically and topically.”


cbg glaucoma therapy

The mechanism by which CBG benefits glaucoma is not fully understood. (19)

  • “The mechanism of action of cannabinoids in the human eye is not fully understood…topical application of cannabinoids showed a large difference between the treated and untreated eye, suggesting a localized action.”

cannabinoid glaucoma benefits

CBG Benefits: Circulation

It may be the case that CBG is able to relax veinous pressure and increase blood circulation to the eye. (20)

  • Cannabinoids are known to have vasorelaxant properties that can increase blood flow in the eye.
  • “The mediator endothelin-1, produced by vascular endothelial cells, has a significant role in the regulation of local circulation, producing vasoconstriction and being involved in the pathophysiological processes of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, Raynaud’s phenomenon, ischaemic heart disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension, among others.”

cannabigerol ocular pressure

raspberries close shot 

CBG Entourage Effect: Terpenes

Blending CBG with complementary terpenes lengthens and targets the effects of both CBG and terpenes.

  • Terpenes are naturally occurring compounds produced by the cannabis plant.
  • Terpenes are known for their scent, taste, and complex effects on health and mood.
  • Terpenes interact with CBG and boost the effects of each compound.  (26)
  • “Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human behavior when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng mL (-1).
  • Terpenes “display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts.”

 

cbg entourage effects terpenes 

Entourage Effect: Pain Relief

Consuming full-spectrum extracts with terpenes and cannabinoids increases the benefits of both the cannabinoid compounds and the terpenes, according to a medical study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology. (27)

  • The cannabis entourage effect is especially helpful in the case of hard to treat pain.
  • “In a randomized controlled trial of oromucosal Cannabis-based extracts in patients with intractable pain despite optimized opioid treatment, a THC-predominant extract failed to [reduce pain compared to the] placebo, whereas a whole plant extract (nabiximols, vide infra) with both THC and cannabidiol (CBD) proved statistically significantly better” at reducing patient pain.

 

cannabigerol terpene benefits

tall hemp cbg plant at sunset

CBG: Endocannabinoid System

CBG oil works because it affects something called your Endocannabinoids System (ECS). Your ECS is like a conductor. It tells important regulatory subsystems in your body when to turn on or off. The functional responsibility of your ECS is to keep your body in chemical balance.

  • Your endocannabinoid system is an important part of your nervous system.
  • When CBG bonds with parts of your ECS signals are sent to different subsystems to turn on or off.
  • The subsystems controlled by your ECS maintain the chemical balance of your healthy body.
  • Cannabinoids like CBG affect your ECS because they mimic the naturally occurring chemicals your body uses to send on/off signals.
  • Cannabinoids appear to have such wide-ranging benefits because they interact with the ECS. It is actually the ECS that has significant and wide-ranging capabilities within your body.

Roughly speaking, cannabinoids give you the power to adjust your own body’s natural regulatory functions. That’s why they’re so powerful.

anxiety emotional balance

Endocannabinoid System 101

Your endocannabinoid system has far-reaching regulatory powers that you can affect by consuming cannabinoids.

  • Cannabinoids like CBG and CBD give you the power to affect your health and change how you feel.
  • By consuming CBG cannabinoids, you are accessing the built-in system your body uses to maintain chemical balance.

Your ECS has partial or complete responsibility for maintaining chemical activities that affect:

  • anxiety
  • immune system response
  • fertility
  • mood
  • appetite
  • pain sensation
  • memory (formation and destruction)
  • sleep
  • muscle recovery
  • stress response
  • inflammation

…and that’s just some of what is currently known. (28)

cannabigerol health effects

Endocannabinoid System Discovery

Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 were discovered in 1990 and 1993 and led to the first scientific description of the ECS.

  • The ECS is believed to have a critical role in maintaining the internal chemical balance that leads to changes in health and mood. (29)
  • Cannabinoids interact with the CB1 and CB2 type receptors in your nervous system.
  • “The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is distributed in the brain areas associated motor control, emotional responses, motivated behavior, and energy homeostasis.”
  • The CB1 receptor is also present in “adipose tissue, pancreas, live, GI tract, skeletal muscles, heart and the reproduction system.”
  • The other main receptor that cannabinoids are known to interact with is the CB2 receptor. The CB2 receptor “is mainly expressed in the immune system regulating its functions,” according to this study published in the journal Neuro Endocrinology Letters.

fertility inflammation pain

The ECS remains poorly understood today by most general practitioners.

  • Unfortunately, 95% of doctors were not taught about the endocannabinoid system while in medical school according to one study of medical professionals.

It is up to you to educate yourself about the effects of your endocannabinoid system (ECS). Every bit of knowledge you can learn about your ECS and how it functions will put you in greater control of your own health and how you feel.

cbg side effects graphic

CBG Side Effects

CBG is generally well-tolerated and adverse effects are thought to be minimal.

You can download this excellent PDF developed by the Department of Health of The District Of Columbia on the adverse effects and drug interactions of cannabinoids like CBG and CBD.

CBG Adverse Effects Department of Health

As with any cannabinoid, you may have reactions that are a result of your body’s unique chemistry.

  • Some consumers have reported side effects of CBG that include a feeling of tiredness and drowsiness with a loss of appetite.

Follow the manufacturer’s CBG dosage recommendations.

  • Start off slowly to see how CBG makes you feel.
  • Increase or decrease your CBG dosage as you feel comfortable
  • Stop taking CBG if you start to exhibit adverse effects.

cbg dosage guide graphic  

CBG Dosage

If you are smoking CBG joints:

  • The recommended dosage is whatever feels good to you
  • Smoking cannabis plant material has no practical overdose scenarios.

If you are consuming CBG oils, extracts, or concentrates:

  • Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation
  • CBG Extracts, oils, and concentrates may deliver unhealthy loads of cannabinoids and other compounds if not used with due care.
  • If you detect any adverse effects discontinue use or consult with a doctor.

References

  1. Tambaro S, Bortolato M. Cannabinoid-related agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders: current knowledge and future perspectives.Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2012;7(1):25–40. doi:10.2174/157488912798842269
  2. Russo EB. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(1):245–259. doi:10.2147/tcrm.s1928
  3. Francesca Borrelli, Ester Pagano, Barbara Romano, Stefania Panzera, Francesco Maiello, Diana Coppola, Luciano De Petrocellis, Lorena Buono, Pierangelo Orlando, Angelo A. Izzo, Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid, Carcinogenesis, Volume 35, Issue 12, December 2014, Pages 2787–2797,https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgu205
  4. Ahmed W, Katz S. Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2016;12(11):668–679.
  5. Gugliandolo A, Pollastro F, Grassi G, Bramanti P, Mazzon E. In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid.Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(7):1992. Published 2018 Jul 8. doi:10.3390/ijms19071992
  6. Francesca Borrelli, Ester Pagano, Barbara Romano, Stefania Panzera, Francesco Maiello, Diana Coppola, Luciano De Petrocellis, Lorena Buono, Pierangelo Orlando, Angelo A. Izzo, Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid,Carcinogenesis, Volume 35, Issue 12, December 2014, Pages 2787–2797, https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgu205
  7. Morales P, Hurst DP, Reggio PH. Molecular Targets of the Phytocannabinoids: A Complex Picture. Prog Chem Org Nat Prod. 2017;103:103–131. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-45541-9_4
  8. Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Soydaner U, Öztürk E, et al. Evolution of the Cannabinoid and Terpene Content during the Growth of Cannabis sativa Plants from Different Chemotypes. J Nat Prod. 2016;79(2):324–331. doi:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00949
  9. <“USC > Title 21 > Chapter 13 > Subchapter I > Part A > § 802. Definitions: (16)”(PDF)Government Publishing Office – US Code
  10. Navarro G, Varani K, Reyes-Resina I, et al. Cannabigerol Action at Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptors and at CB1-CB2 Heteroreceptor Complexes.Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:632. Published 2018 Jun 21. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00632
  11. Russo EB. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain.Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(1):245–259. doi:10.2147/tcrm.s1928
  12. Francesca Borrelli, Ester Pagano, Barbara Romano, Stefania Panzera, Francesco Maiello, Diana Coppola, Luciano De Petrocellis, Lorena Buono, Pierangelo Orlando, Angelo A. Izzo, Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid,Carcinogenesis, Volume 35, Issue 12, December 2014, Pages 2787–2797, https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgu205
  13. Francesca Borrelli, Ester Pagano, Barbara Romano, Stefania Panzera, Francesco Maiello, Diana Coppola, Luciano De Petrocellis, Lorena Buono, Pierangelo Orlando, Angelo A. Izzo, Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid, Carcinogenesis, Volume 35, Issue 12, December 2014, Pages 2787–2797, https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgu205
  14. Gugliandolo A, Pollastro F, Grassi G, Bramanti P, Mazzon E. In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid.Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(7):1992. Published 2018 Jul 8. doi:10.3390/ijms19071992
  15. Francesca Borrelli, Ester Pagano, Barbara Romano, Stefania Panzera, Francesco Maiello, Diana Coppola, Luciano De Petrocellis, Lorena Buono, Pierangelo Orlando, Angelo A. Izzo, Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid, Carcinogenesis, Volume 35, Issue 12, December 2014, Pages 2787–2797, https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgu205
  16. Gugliandolo A, Pollastro F, Grassi G, Bramanti P, Mazzon E. In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(7):1992. Published 2018 Jul 8. doi:10.3390/ijms19071992
  17. Gugliandolo A, Pollastro F, Grassi G, Bramanti P, Mazzon E. In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(7):1992. Published 2018 Jul 8. doi:10.3390/ijms19071992
  18. Tomida I, Pertwee RG, Azuara-Blanco A. Cannabinoids and glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88(5):708–713. doi:10.1136/bjo.2003.032250
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