Optimize Entourage Effects

This is a scientific guide.

Based on the latest medical studies.

  • match terpenes to their exact health benefits
  • identify the smell and taste of important terpenes
  • boost your CBD entourage effect
  • identify beneficial strains and terpene profiles

Let’s get started. 

What are CBD terpenes?

High CBD hemp strains are full of delicious terpenes with broad health benefits.

Terpene definition: aromatic compounds in cannabis that help create each strain’s unique smell and flavor.

hemp terpene properties

Terpenes are created in hemp flowers along with the cannabinoids like CBD, CBG, and CBN.

Some of the exact same terpenes found in hemp are also found in fruits and vegetables.

Terpenes Are Everywhere

Amazingly, terpenes in hemp have significant health benefits and mood-altering properties.

They also account for a lot of the differences in hemp strain characteristics.

terpene health benefits

Terpene Benefits

Terpenes may relieve stress, anxiety, depression, insomnia. (1)

cannabidiol terpene study

Terpenes benefits:

  • uplift mood
  • relax mind and muscles
  • anti-inflammation properties
  • anti-anxiety
  • fight stress
  • analgesic properties

Entourage Effect

Terpenes and terpene oil can be mixed with CBD to increase the effects of both beneficial compounds. (2)

Terpenes amplify and target CBD health benefits.

cannabidiol boost benefit

If you take the right terpene isolates together with CBD oil, you can boost the health benefits of your CBD.

For example, add the terpene linalool to your CBD oil to increase its relaxing effect.

Want to go even further and deepen the anti-anxiety and sedative effects of the cannabinoid CBN?

Read our guide below to find out how.

anti-anxiety terpene sedative

Generally speaking, if you’re looking to boost sedative effects, try a CBD flower or hemp strain high in the terpene terpineol.

terpineol cbd hemp terpene

Terpineol is credited with causing the “couch-lock effect” caused by Indica cannabis strains. (3)

When CBD and terpenes work together to intensify each other, that’s called the “entourage effect.” (4)

terpene cannabidiol synergy

Terpene Profile

Variations in hemp terpene profiles are what make hemp strain effects unique to a particular chemovar.

Click on our guide below to see a list of our favorite productively relaxing hemp strains.

anti-anxiety terpene profile

Once you learn about the smell and flavor of different hemp terpenes, you can even identify the precise terpene profile of a hemp strain with only your nose.

For example, many high CBD hemp strains have a strong citrus smell.

That’s how you know it has a terpene profile high in limonene.

limonene terpene cbd hemp

Limonene is a hemp terpene known for its uplifting effects.

Knowing about terpenes will help you guide yourself at the dispensary so you get the hemp variety with the effects you want.

Making Sense of Terpenes

Terpene charts show there are up to 120 different terpenes found in high CBD hemp strains. (5)

cannabidiol terpene types

The 16 terpenes in the list below are the most important ones you’ll experience in high CBD hemp strains.

Scroll down to find out the exact smell, taste, and effects of each beneficial compound.

Back to terpene list ⤴

Limonene

 

Limonene is a terpene you can definitely expect to come across in many high CBD hemp strains.

The same limonene in hemp is also found in citrus fruits too.

Studies show that if you’re feeling down, try a CBD strain with a lemony scent for an uplifting effect.

terpene benefits uplifting effects

Limonene is thought to provide a quick pick-me-up and a subtle mood lift. (6)

Hemp strains high in limonene (or CBD tinctures with limonene isolate) smell and taste like fresh citrus.

Interestingly, studies show that hemp strains with pleasant-smelling terpene profiles (like limonene) can make people feel happier. (7)

terpene effects guide

You can also mix limonene with different cannabinoids to increase the benefits of both compounds.

Try limonene with CBN (cannabinol).

The combination of the two has a double effect that is super relaxing for the body but uplifting for mind and mood.

The extra boost from mixing limonene with CBN is an example of the entourage effect.

Limonene Entourage Effect

 

Entourage effect definition: when terpenes and CBD work together to intensify and target the benefits of each compound. (8)

cannabidiol terpene synergy

Learning how to dose CBD oil with complimentary terpenes will allow you to take full advantage of the boost from the entourage effect.

When you dial in the full power of the entourage effect, your CBD products become more effective.

Essentially, the entourage effect can safely increase the effective strength of your CBD products. (9)

terpene entourage effect example

As you can see from the terpene list below for the Kashmir Blue cannabis chemovar, breeders of medical hemp select for cannabinoid and terpene content.

limonene hemp terpene

For example, medical studies show hemp strains with copious amounts of limonene fight stress, anxiety, depression and boost confidence. (10)

terpene chemovar strain breeding

Limonene Health Benefits

 

Limonene has been shown to have cancer-preventive properties especially for breast cancer and colorectal cancers. (11)

terpene health benefits

Additionally, Limonene has strong anti-inflammatory properties.

Limonene anti-inflammatory and cholesterol dissolving properties can be helpful for cardiovascular health—also gut disorders like Colitis and Crohn’s disease. (12)

terpene heart benefit

Limonene has been shown by multiple medical studies to aid in treating heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD). (13)

limonene heartburn effects

Though controversial, it is widely thought that limonene has beneficial properties for weight control and skincare.

These claims do require further study.

Check out our write-up of this 2020 medical study about CBD skincare benefits.

terpene health benefits

 

Limonene Adverse Effects

Adverse Effects: Limonene is present in many citrus fruits and is considered to have low human toxicity as well as minimal to no adverse effects in normal consumption patterns. (14)

limonene terpene toxicity

 

Back to terpene list ⤴

Myrcene

 

Try CBD with myrcene to melt your anxiety away, literally.

Smell and Taste

You’ll find myrcene in many high CBD hemp strains.

It’s also found in large doses in fruits like mango and especially wild thyme.

If you have a “fruity” smelling CBD strain, there’s a good chance myrcene is what you’re smelling.

Myrcene Entourage Effect

Mix myrcene with the right cannabinoids and you can boost its relaxing anti-anxiety effects. (15)

 

terpene anti-anxiety benefits

Myrcene helps your body uptake and absorb cannabinoids like CBD more effectively.

According to the study above, myrcene helps extend and intensify the health benefits of multiple cannabinoids like CBD, CBN, and CBG. (16)

Not only does myrcene extend the effectiveness of cannabinoids, but it has health benefits of its own as well.

 

 

Myrcene Health Benefits

Myrcene has strong pain-relieving properties.

It’s been used for centuries in traditional medicines. (17)

myrcene cannabidiol therapy

Beyond pain relief, myrcene has complimentary anti-inflammatory and muscle relaxing properties.

When present in high doses, myrcene can act as a powerful sedative. (18)

Myrcene isolate taken with the cannabinoid may even have sedative effects similar to valium.

anti-anxiety terpene mood benefits

Is myrcene the terpene that causes the super sedative “couch-lock” effect of some cannabis?

Some scientists think so… (19)

sedative effect

CBD and myrcene isolate taken together will help fight anxiety even on your most anxious days.

myrcene sedative benefits

myrcene entourage effect

Taking myrcene isolate with CBN can be a powerful sleep-promoting combination too.

strong terpene sedative

If you’ve had a particularly crushing day, you might try adding myrcene to your CBD routine.

It could be a powerful boost to your recovery.

CBD oil with high amounts of myrcene will make you pleasantly ready for a restful evening.

Back to terpene list ⤴

Linalool

Does stress pile up like bricks on your shoulders?

A CBD tincture with the terpene linalool may help restore you to a natural feeling of calmness.

Linalool Smell and Taste

Linalool is a lavender-scented terpene found in herbs and high CBD hemp strains

In fact, linalool is found in over 200 species of plants making it one the most prolific terpenes.

linalool properties

Some fruits and vegetables even contain very high concentrations of linalool. 

 

Linalool Traditional Medicine

Linalool has been used by people throughout history as traditional medicine.

Linalool is not toxic to humans in common dosages though it can be an eye and skin irritant at very high concentrations. (20)

In the body, linalool breaks down and is expelled quickly.

terpene adverse effects

It has notable health benefits ranging from anti-anxiety benefits to anti-bacterial properties. (21)

terpene anxiolytic relaxation

linalool health benefits

Linalool’s pleasing smell is used as a scenting agent in hygiene products like soaps, shampoos, and skincare creams.

linalool uses

Like lavender, linalool has a natural sedative effect.

According to the medical studies below, linalool is good for combating daily stress and anxiety. (22)

cbd terpenes anti-anxiety stress relievers

linalool anxiety benefits

Multiple peer-reviewed medical studies have found linalool to be an effective compound for fighting anxiety disorders like Generalized Anxiety Disorder. (23)

linalool anxiety treatment

Linalool Cancer Benefits

Linalool boosts the immune system and has promising cancer-fighting effects.

Studies have shown that linalool can help kill cancer cells and potentially provide some protection from tumors. (24)

terpene cancer benefits nih medical studies

linalool cancer benefits

Linalool Immune Booster

 

Linalool helps boost your immune system by breaking down stress.

Accumulated stress is known to disrupt the immune system’s ability to function at its best.

Not enough sleep and stress-induced inflammation are precursors to catching a cold or an infection. (25)

terpene stress anxiety benefits

Additionally, Linalool is believed to help with the proper distribution of white blood cells.

White blood cells are your body’s immune system response to infection.

So, this terpene helps fight off the infection before it takes hold.

It works with your body to more effectively use its own defenses.

 

Endocannabinoid System

‘Boosting your body’s own systems’ is a theme frequently repeated about terpenes and CBD.

The concept is at the heart of why CBD and terpenes have wide-ranging health benefits. (26)

linalool health benefits

CBD effects a critical regulatory system in your body called the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

linalool cannabidiol benefits

According to the medical study below, the proper functioning of your endocannabinoid system is critical to your good health.

terpene medical study nih

Taking terpenes and CBD together boosts the effectiveness of your endocannabinoid system. (27)

Your body can self-regulate but sometimes it needs a little help.

That’s where CBD and terpenes come in.

Terpenes taken with CBD concentrate restore balance to your ECS and make you feel better.

Linalool Safety Toxicity

Linalool side effects are few and toxicity is low.

It is considered a generally safe compound when used as a food additive according to the FDA. (28)

linalool adverse effects

Back to terpene list ⤴

Pinene Smell And Taste

The fresh smell of a pine forest always makes me feel better.

You too?

Pinene is one of the terpenes you’re practically guaranteed to experience if you spend any time enjoying hemp.

It’s a very common terpene in many cannabis strains.

Pinene is responsible for hemp chemovars (strains) distinctive pine-like resinous scent.

If your hemp or CBD oil has a “piney” aroma, then you’re in luck.

It’s likely a chemovar with a terpene profile high in pinene.

Cannabidiol terpene profile

Like other terpenes, pinene is found in many plant species.

Pinene is also found in orange peels, rosemary, dill, basil, and many food plants.

You’re likely to come across pinene in your hemp as well as your normal diet of fresh leafy greens.

 

Pinene Health Benefits

According to the 2017 medical study below, pinene has significant anti-inflammatory properties as well as potential cancer-related benefits.

Pinene anti-inflammatory benefits help relieve pain. (29)

pinene analgesic benefit

Mixing CBD with pinene makes the health benefits of each compound more effective. (30)

Here again, we find the potent entourage effect at work.

phytocannabinoid entourage effect

When taken with full-spectrum CBD, pinene has even stronger anti-inflammatory properties likely due to interaction with additional cannabinoids. (31)

CBD oil with pinene may act as a bronchodilator and open lung airways.

pinene health study

CBD tincture and terpene isolate mixtures high in pinene also fight stress and anxiety in animal models. (32)

According to the 2008 study below, pinene has benefits for hard to treat pain. (33)

terpene pain relief therapy

 

Pinene is believed to have an anesthetic effect on hard to treat pain similar to caryophyllene.

pinene pain benefit

 

These known benefits are only scratching the surface of the therapeutic potential of pinene. (34)

terpene scientific medical study

pinene health benefits

Quite a wide range of health benefits from one terpene.

It’s definitely one of the best terpenes to look for when choosing CBD oil, flower or tinctures.

Luckily, pinene is also one of the most prevalent terpenes in CBD hemp chemovars.

A 2019 medical study in a respected scientific journal literally calls pinene a “miracle” compound for its potential therapeutic benefits. (35)

That’s hard to argue with…

 

Pinene Dosage

 

Hemp with terpene profiles high in pinene will have different effects on different people.

Terpenes are consumed regularly in fruits and vegetables and believed to have minimal side effects when consumed as food.

pinene dosage safety

That said, it is recommended to start off slow to see how pinene interacts with your specific body chemistry.

Then, increase or decrease your pinene dose as you feel appropriate.

Confused about CBD dosages?  Find comprehensive medical studies in our guide to CBD dosage right here.

pinene terpene dosage

Pinene Adverse Effects

 

Pinene has minimal side effects when consumed as food

There is some guidance on inhalation hazards but not in dose ranges you could expect to find in cannabis or hemp plant material.

These ranges mostly concern industrial applications. (36)

terpene adverse effects

Back to terpene list ⤴

Beta-Caryophyllene

Try CBD with caryophyllene isolate to help with chronic pain.

Also known as Humulene, Caryophyllene is a terpene found in high CBD hemp strains.

Caryophyllene is found in spices such as black pepper, hops, cloves, basil, and rosemary.

It has a spicy flavor with a peppery smell.

terpene caryophyllene description

Caryophyllene is one of the safest terpenes. (37)

It can be consumed in food in large quantities.

According to the FDA, caryophyllene is generally safe as a food additive.

 

 

Caryophyllene For Pain

 

Caryophyllene is an interesting terpene with many health benefits.

Taking caryophyllene for pain is one of the main benefits of this powerful terpene. (38)

terpene analgesic benefitscaryophyllene analgesic benefit

According to the medical study below, caryophyllene has strong pain-relieving properties. (39)

 

terpene medical study health benefits

 

Caryophyllene is an especially good pain reliever when taken in combination with cannabidiol. (40)

cannabidiol caryophyllene entourage

Caryophyllene For Inflammation

Caryophyllene also has excellent anti-inflammatory properties.

Interestingly, its anti-inflammatory properties have even been shown to protect the brain from premature aging in animal models. (41)

The 2019 study below is an exciting breakthrough that may someday show benefits for treating humans with neurodegenerative conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer’s.

terpene alzheimers benefit

caryophyllene anti-inflammatory effects

It is believed that caryophyllene’s benefits stem from its ability to activate the CB2 receptor in the body’s endocannabinoid system.

The CB2 receptor is the same nervous system receptor activated by the cannabinoid CBD and may have benefits for treating multiple sclerosis in the future. (42)

terpene neuroinflammation health benefits medical studyterpene health benefits

The endocannabinoid system is part of your larger nervous system.

It exists in your brain and extremities.

As part of your endocannabinoid system, caryophyllene is an active signaling compound.

It can play a vital role in good health and homeostasis.

If you’re interested in learning more about the endocannabinoid system, click on our CBD guide below.


cannabidiol health benefits

 

Caryophyllene Neuroprotective Effects

Beyond reducing neuroinflammation, caryophyllene appears to have additional health benefits for Alzheimer’s and dementia(43)

terpene neuroprotective properties

terpene health benefits

Caryophyllene’s effects on dementia and Alzheimer’s stem from its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. (44)

terpene health study

 

More study is needed on human subjects to determine caryophyllene’s exact mechanism of action and efficacy.

 

Caryophyllene For Opiate Addiction

 

Caryophyllene has benefits for decreasing opioid dependence.

Caryophyllene increases the effects of low dose opiates painkillers. (45)

terpene addiction help

caryophyllene painkiller benefit

Patients consuming caryophyllene plus opiates can take smaller quantities of opiates but receive greater pain relief from the lower dose.

This effect on the way painkillers are consumed is a result of caryophyllene’s interaction with a part of the endocannabinoid system called the CB2 receptor.

terpene analgesic effects

terpene analgesic benefit

 

Additionally, the anti-inflammatory health benefits of caryophyllene may be helpful in gut and bowel disorders.

In animal models of Colitis, caryophyllene reduced symptoms and helped recovery. (46)

terpene gut inflammation disorder benefits

caryophyllene IBD benefit

Caryophyllene Entourage Effect

Caryophyllene is frequently mentioned in connection with the entourage effect.

The entourage effect maximizes terpene and cannabinoid benefits. (47)

Consumed together, caryophyllene and cannabinoids like CBD, CBN or CBG are believed to have a strong entourage effect.

The entourage effect strengthens and lengthens the benefits of CBD and caryophyllene.

maximum terpene benefits

hemp entourage effect

 

Caryophyllene Adverse Effects

Caryophyllene, like most terpenes, is recognized by the FDA as being a generally safe substance with minimal side effects when consumed as food.

terpene adverse effects

terpene adverse effects

 

And lastly, an interesting fact about caryophyllene…

caryophyllene fact

 

Back to terpene list ⤴

Terpinene

Terpinene is naturally found in the high CBD hemp strains.

Terpinene isolate can be derived from cardamom and marjoram oils.

terpene terpinene properties

 

Terpinene Smell And Taste

Terpinene is a colorless liquid that has a turpentine-like smell.

It is not a common terpene in fruits and vegetables but it’s found in multiple hemp chemovars (strains).

Terpinene is used mainly in industrial applications as a scenting and flavoring agent.

terpinene smell taste

 

Terpinene Health Benefits

According to a May 2019 medical study, terpinene is believed to have anti-bacterial and anti-microbial properties.

These properties may make it a suitable ingredient in a topical cream for use against acne or atopic dermatitis(48)

terpene health benefit medical study

terpene skincare medical study

According to some research, terpinene may actually have mild anxiety-causing effects.  (49)

terpene anxiety chemovar

A 2018 survey of medical marijuana users rated strains with terpinene as having potentially anxiety-causing effects.

terpene anxiety benefits

 

If you’re interested in hemp and CBD effects on anxiety, check out our CBD Anxiety Guide to the latest peer-reviewed medical studies on using CBD and terpenes for anxiety relief.

terpene medical research

 

Back to terpene list ⤴

Guaiol

Guaiol (pronounced “gweye-all”) is found in high CBD hemp chemovars (strains) as well as Cypress Pine.

guaiol terpene characteristics

Guaiol Smell And Taste

Guaiol has a smell similar to pine trees with hints rose and has a fruity flavor similar to plums.  

guaiol characteristics

Guaiol Health Benefits

Guaiol is known for its anti-inflammatory effects and anti-bacterial properties. (50)

Guaiol is a traditional medicine widely used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. 

guaiol antibiotic benefit

Historically, guaiol has been used to treat diseases such as Gout, Arthritis, and even the common sore throat.

 

 

Promising Cancer Benefits

New peer-reviewed medical research shows that the terpene guaiol may have anticancer benefits for non-small cell lung cancer. (51)

terpene traditional medicine

terpene lung cancer benefit

Guaiol is also believed to help relieve high blood pressure.  This effect is somewhat in doubt, though.  It has not been backed up by scientific study.

 

Guaiol Anxiety Effects

According to a 2018 medical survey of medical cannabis patients, guaiol may increase anxiety (anxiogenic effect) when consumed in cannabis.

terpene anxiety effects

If you’re interested in trusted scientific studies on CBD and terpenes for anxiety check out our summaries of medical studies below.

guaiol anxiogenic effect

In a 2018 study on the anti-anxiety effects of medical marijuana, Guaiol was identified by medical marijuana patients as a terpene that potentially increases anxiety. (51)

terpene anxiety effects

Pain Relieving Effects

Interestingly, guaiol appears to have “anti-analgesic” effects which means that guaiol does not have painkilling effects and may decrease painkilling effects of CBD and cannabinoids. (52)

terpene painkiller properties

 

 

 

Back to terpene list ⤴

Trans-nerolidol

Are you getting the effects you want from your CBD cream?

If not, look for a CBD topical product with the terpene trans-nerolidol.

Trans-nerolidol helps CBD penetrate the skin so more is absorbed where you need it.

terpene skin benefits

 

https://youtu.be/atxTojfhDr0

 

 

Smell And Taste

Trans-nerolidol is a secondary terpene naturally found in some high CBD hemp strains.

It is also found in jasmine, ginger, lavender, and tea-tree.

Trans-nerolidol has a woody smell that is often compared to the smell of tree bark.

terpene nerolidol properties

Trans-nerolidol is said to have a fruity citrus-like flavor.

 

Food Flavoring

While frequently used in cosmetic products, the FDA believes Nerolidol is safe enough to be consumed as a food flavoring agent as well. (53)

terpene taste medical study

terpene skin care

 

Health Benefits

Trans-nerolidol is a good terpene to enhance CBD skincare products

Additionally, if you’re using a topical CBD product to help with pain trans-nerolidol may be able to help boost the analgesic benefits of your CBD cream.  

Trans-nerolidol has properties that help CBD penetrate the skin. (54)

 

terpene skin benefits

In fact, nerolidol has been shown to increase skin penetration and diffusion of some active ingredients by up to 2000%.

terpene skincare benefits

So, trans-nerolidol gives you a more effective CBD dose of CBD where you need it.

Trans-nerolidol also has strong anti-oxidant properties. (55)

terpene antioxidant medical study NIH

terpene health benefits

Trans-nerolidol also has anti-microbial benefits which can be helpful in a topical cream product. (56)

terpene health benefits

Nerolidol has also been shown to have strong antifungal benefits against both human and plant pathogens. (57)

terpene health study

Studies show trans-nerolidol has anti-cancer properties in animals but its cancer-fighting properties have yet to be tested clinically in humans. (58)

terpene cancer benefits

More study is needed before it is known exactly how effective trans-nerolidol is against specific cancers in humans.

Back to terpene list ⤴

Bisabolol

Having difficulty quieting down before sleep?

Anxiety keeping you up?

Try CBD tea with bisabolol.

It helps ease you into a state of mind that welcomes sleep.

Bisabolol is not found in many plants but it can be found in some high CBD hemp strains.

https://youtu.be/EQBycQWueiY

Bisabolol Smell and Taste

Bisabolol is the primary ingredient in essential oils from chamomile flowers.

It has a weak flowery smell and a mildly sweet taste.

bisabolol terpene properties

 

Bisabolol Health Benefits

According to the medical study below, bisabolol has strong anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties.  (59)

terpene health benefits

These therapeutic properties may make bisabolol useful in treating inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. (60)

bisabolol health benefits

Bisabolol For Cosmetics

Bisabolol has been used in skincare for centuries.

Recently, bisabolol anti-irritant and perceived skin healing properties have found use in the cosmetics industry. (62)

bisabolol skincare benefits

If you’re planning on using a CBD cream for skincare, try a CBD cream with bisabolol isolate for the best results.

 

Bisabolol Adverse Effects

In rare cases bisabolol has caused contact allergies.

terpene adverse effects

terpene side effects allergy

 

Back to terpene list ⤴

Delta 3 Carene

If you struggle with pain because of arthritis do yourself a favor right now.

Find a CBD hemp strain high in carene.

https://youtu.be/vPazH7hTrMk

Delta 3 carene is found in some high CBD hemp strains.

It’s also found in cedar trees, pine trees, bell peppers, and basil.

 

 

Carene Smell And Taste

Carene has a piney taste with a very slight bitter aftertaste. 

Carene has a sweet smell that has been described as similar to wet woodlands and cypress trees.

carene terpene properties

An appealing scent, right?

 

 

Carene For Cosmetics

Delta 3 Carene is used in modern cosmetics and is believed to be a natural anti-histamine.

It has been shown to have excellent anti-inflammatory properties according to medical studies in animal models. (61)

terpene health benefit medical study

In the study below, carene was found to be a potential treatment in cases of acute skin inflammation. (62)

terpene eczema psoriasis therapeutic

terpene inflammation treatment

 

 

Carene Health Benefits

 

Delta 3 Carene also has bone healing benefits in medical studies of animal models. (63)

Carene is a natural choice for osteoporosis and arthritis.

terpene bone healing properties

carene bone health

Delta 3 Carene has anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antibacterial benefits. (64)

carene health benefits

Though yet to be fully understood, delta 3 carene helps with memory creation and memory retention.

This promising new research will hopefully have an impact on future treatments for Alzheimer’s syndrome and dementia.

 

 

Back to terpene list ⤴

Eucalyptol

 

Eucalyptol, also known as cineole, is found in small quantities in cannabis and high CBD hemp strains.

https://youtu.be/xgVUUR0tuAY

 

 

Eucalyptol Smell And Taste

Eucalyptol is clear and colorless with a minty, slightly spicy smell and cooling flavor.

eucalyptol properties

Eucalyptol is also found in sweet basil, bay leaves, wormwood, rosemary, and common sage.

eucalyptol sources

Eucalyptol is used as a scenting agent in cosmetics and fragrances.

It is also used to flavor baked goods.

Eucalyptol Health Benefits

The Eucalyptol found in high CBD hemp strains may have medicinal benefits even though it is found in very small quantities.

Eucalyptol has been shown to have pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties. (65)

terpene medical study results

terpene pain relief

Additionally, eucalyptol (also known as 8-cineole) has been examined for its gastroprotective effects, antimicrobial, antifungal and insecticidal properties among others. (65)

terpene gastroprotective medical study

gastroprotective antimicrobial anti-fungal

Eucalyptol’s greatest health benefit may be its gastroprotective qualities according to recent medical studies. (66)

terpene ulcer benefit

That said, Eucalyptol makes up less than .06% of the complete terpene profile of hemp.

So, it’s a relatively minor terpene.

 

 

Eucalyptol Adverse Effects

Although eucalyptol is used as a flavoring agent in very small quantities, if ingested in larger quantities it can be toxic.

eucalyptol terpene toxicity

If you’re interested in learning more about the safety and toxicity of eucalyptol, see the guide below.

 

Back to terpene list ⤴

Camphene

 

Camphene is a terpene found in high CBD hemp chemovars (strains).

https://youtu.be/PAwzo5Md8Tc

 

 

Camphene Smell And Taste

Camphene has a damp woodland or musky earth smell.

camphene terpene properties

Camphene is used in essential oils like cypress oil, ginger oil, and citronella oil.

 

Camphene Health Benefits

Camphene has a number of promising health benefits identified by medical studies.

These benefits require further research before they can be used as part of disease treatment.

Camphene may have benefits for inhibiting aggressive forms of melanoma cancer. (67)

terpene health therapy

terpene skin benefits

In animal models, camphene also appears to be a strong antioxidant that may have some applications in lung inflammatory diseases where oxidative stress is critical.  (68)

terpene health benefits

camphene inflammation benefit

Applied in a CBD cream, Camphene may help the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema. (69)

terpene skin inflammation disease benefits

According to the 2016 medical study below, when taken orally with a CBD tincture camphene lowers triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood.

terpene cardiovascular benefit

Since these factors contribute to heart disease, it is believed that camphene holds promise to be a treatment for cardiovascular disease. (70)

terpene heart health

 

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Borneol

 

Borneol is one of the most interesting terpenes you’re likely to come across in a high CBD hemp strain.

Borneol has been used for more than a thousand years in traditional medicine around the world and may even help compounds cross the blood-brain barrier.

terpene traditional medicine

borneol terpene history

https://youtu.be/cj2tPsJm0q8

 

Borneol Smell and Taste

Borneol is also found in mint and rosemary.

It has a spicy, minty smell and flavor.

borneol properties

Borneol Uses

The borneol terpene found in hemp is also used as an insect repellant.

According to research, borneol repels ticks and mosquitoes.

borneol mosquito repellent

Borneol Health Benefits

Unfortunately, few peer-reviewed medical studies have been done on the health benefits of borneol.

One study does suggest that borneol (taken together with conventional cancer treatments) may aid in the treatment of specific types of ovarian cancer. (71)

terpene medical studies

terpene cancer benefit

Though it has been somewhat ignored by western medicine, borneol has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 1500 years as a type of circulation aid.

borneol circulatory treatment

In a 2017 peer-reviewed medical study, borneol was found to be a promising drug delivery agent for the brain. (72)

terpene entourage effect

borneol health benefits

So, it appears borneol has the ability to aid drugs in crossing the “blood-brain barrier.”

This means borneol can help deliver a more effective dose of medicine to the brain while protecting it from disease. (73)

borneol health benefits

In acupuncture, borneol is considered to have a wide range of health benefits.

Borneol is believed to be a digestive aid, helps keep the heart in good function and aids with circulation.

 

Borneol Adverse Effects

Borneol isolate is an eye and skin irritant but we have not heard of any adverse effects occurring from contact with the modest levels of borneol present in hemp.

terpene toxicity side effects

Back to terpene list ⤴

Terpineol

 

Terpineol may be the compound responsible for the (in)famous ‘couch-lock effect’ resulting from some indica strains.

Terpineol is naturally found in high CBD hemp chemovars (strains).

https://youtu.be/NlgUiIR5tnA

 

Terpineol can also be found in pine oil.

terpineol sources

 

Terpineol Smell and Taste

Terpineol is a colorless liquid with a floral smell similar to the scent of lilac flowers and apple blossom.

terpineol terpene properties

Terpineol has a sweet, slightly fruity flavor.

Terpineol for Relaxation

 

Terpineol has strong relaxing and sedative properties. (74)

terpene health benefits

terpineol insomnia benefit

Terpineol’s sedative effects are caused by its molecular structure.

Unlike the relaxing terpene linalool, terpineol’s sedative effects result from the absorption of the compound into the bloodstream rather than an association with a particular smell. (75)

terpineol relaxing benefit

 

For added entourage effect, try pairing terpineol isolate with CBN (cannabinol).

CBN cannabinol benefits

Combining CBN (cannabinol) and terpineol isolate in a CBD cocktail or wax will have strong anti-anxiety and sleep-promoting effects.

terpineol anxiolytic benefits

 

Terpineol Health Benefits

Terpineol appears to inhibit growth and induces tumor cell death in small cell lung carcinoma cancer, according to a peer-reviewed medical study. (76)

terpene oncology benefit

terpene cancer treatment

Terpineol has anti-inflammatory properties that may be beneficial for treating pain and inflammatory diseases. (77)

terpene inflammation health benefits

terpineol health effects

Terpineol has very strong antifungal health benefits and may even be considered a natural food preservative for fresh fruits. (78)

terpene fungal benefits

terpene benefits terpineol

 

Back to terpene list ⤴

Valencene

 

https://youtu.be/0hMyCjtleIE

 

Valencene Smell and Taste

Do you love hemp strains that have a sweet fruit smell?

If your favorite CBD hemp strain has a strong orange or tangerine smell and flavor, there is a good chance it’s high in valencene.

Valencene has a strong citrus smell and flavor.

terpene aroma taste

valencene properties

Valencene is found in high quantities in Valencia oranges.

valencene properties

 

 

Valencene Uses

Valencene is used in cosmetics and perfumes because of its appealing fragrance.

Valencene isolate can act as an insect repellant for ticks and mosquitoes.

Studies show that its effectiveness is similar to deet, the active ingredient in most chemical repellents. (78)

terpene mosquito repellent

valencene uses

Valencene is also being studied for additional health benefits including anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial benefits.

Mixed into a CBD tincture, Valencene may have strong anti-inflammatory entourage effects.

terpene skincare benefits

valencene health benefits

It also has strong anti-microbial properties which may be particularly useful in topical CBD cream.

Back to terpene list ⤴

Geraniol

Geraniol is a flavorful terpene naturally found in high CBD hemp strains.

It’s a primary component in rose oil and citronella oil.

geraniol properties

https://youtu.be/wwflDI8xr68

 

Smell And Taste

Geraniol is used in bath products for its appealing scent.

It has a fruity aroma similar to peaches and plums.

Geraniol has a mild fruity taste and is used as a flavoring agent in many products.

geraniol terpene properties

It can also act as a sweet-smelling insect repellent for mosquitos.

geraniol uses

Interestingly, geraniol is produced by the scent glands of honey bees.

Honey bees use geraniol to mark the location of nectar-producing flowers and the entrance to hives.

 

Geraniol Health Benefits

 

Geraniol health benefits are significant and wide-ranging.

Geraniol is believed to be a neuroprotectant with sedative effects that may help protect from neurological disorders such as dementia or Alzheimer’s. (79)

terpene neurological degenerative disease benefits

geraniol health benefits

Geraniol may have benefits for treating specific cancers including:

  • breast
  • lung
  • colon
  • prostate
  • pancreatic
  • hepatic

terpene cancer treatmentgeraniol cancer benefits

Geraniol is believed to be a “multi-target agent” against cancer which means that it attacks cancer cells in multiple ways.

This multitargeting approach to fighting cancer makes geraniol less susceptible to adaptive resistance by cancer cells. (80)

geraniol cancer treatment

In animal models, geraniol appears to have high antioxidant potential and exceptional bioavailability when consumed as an oral product. (81)

terpene bioavailability absorptiongeraniol oral terpene

Back to terpene list ⤴

Terpene Side Effects

 

Terpenes’ side effects are generally minimal.

Terpenes are present in many wild plants and food crops around the world.

It is likely that you are already consuming many of the same terpenes found naturally in CBD hemp chemovars (strains).

You should expect that your regular fruit and vegetable diet will share some of the same terpenes with your favorite CBD hemp.

So, terpenes are nothing new to your body.

Taking CBD and terpene isolates together is new and so proceed cautiously until you understand how your body will respond.

Everyone’s body is different.

Start off slowly with any new compounds.

Dial-in your CBD and terpene dosage as you go.

Check out this simple CBD dosage guide video by Dr. Liptan.  Many of the same principles will apply to terpenes.

Now that you know more about terpenes available in high CBD hemp strains, find what works for you.

Check back with this article from time to time.

It will be updated regularly as new health studies are published.

Hemp and terpenes are now legal.

Let’s make the most of their benefits.

Peer-reviewed medical research by trusted institutions is just ramping up now.

The full range of benefits of CBD and terpenes is yet to be discovered.

Exciting days.

Back to terpene list ⤴

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