What are terpenes?
This guide provides fact-based answers. It will help you identify terpenes by their smell and taste. It will also give you insight into their mood altering properties and potential health benefits.
- identify the smell and taste of the best cannabis terpenes
- match terpenes to their exact effects
- learn to pair terpenes and cannabinoids to boost the effects of both
- learn to choose cannabis strains with terpene profiles that will be particularly beneficial to you
If you don’t find an answer in this guide to a question you have, leave us a comment below and we’ll search the published studies to see if an answer exists and get back to you.
Let’s get started.
Cannabis strains make organic compounds called terpenes along with cannabinoids like CBD.
Terpenes are defined as aromatic compounds made by cannabis plants. They are what give individual cannabis varieties their unique smell and flavor.
Terpenes also have broad health benefits.
Terpenes are mostly created in the flowers—the buds—of cannabis plants. Some of the same terpenes found in high CBD strains are also found in fruits and vegetables. There are over 120 known terpenes in cannabis.
Medical studies have found that terpenes may relieve stress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. (1)
Terpenes can lift your mood or relax your mind and muscles.
Terpenes also have:
- anti-inflammation benefits
- anti-anxiety benefits
- analgesic properties (pain relief)
Terpenes and terpene oil are frequently mixed with CBD oil. This can be done to improve the taste of CBD oil naturally. But, more commonly, consumers of CBD oil will mix terpenes and CBD together to increase their combined effect.(2)
Terpenes mixed with CBD amplify and target the health benefits of CBD and other cannabinoids. This ‘greater than the sum of its parts effect’ is called the cannabinoid entourage effect or cannabis synergy.
Match the right CBD oil together with a terpene isolate that complements its effects and you will boost the effects of both, significantly. If you get the CBD and terpene synergy right, you’ll know it because you will likely have to dial back your overall dosage.
Interested in trying this out for yourself? Add the terpene linalool to a high-quality CBD oil. Linalool is found in cannabis but it’s also found in lavender. Studies show that adding linalool to a high-quality CBD oil will give it more than just a pleasant scent, it will make it significantly more relaxing.
Interested in an even more relaxing effect? Have you heard of CBN (cannabinol)? It’s another natural cannabinoid. It’s thought to have the strongest sedative effects of all the known cannabinoids. Great for someone looking for tools to manage sleep-onset insomnia.
Read this guide about CBN:
If your goal taking CBD oil is achieving a super relaxing CBD effect, look for a strain high in the terpene terpineol or add some terpineol isolate to your CBD oil.
Terpineol is thought to cause the “couch-lock effect” for which Indica cannabis strains are famous. (3) Indica varieties of cannabis are often high in the terpene terpineol.
As we touched on earlier, cannabinoids (like CBD and CBN) working together with terpenes to produce strong effects is called cannabis synergy. It was a concept that started to get attention when medical researchers failed to reproduce the known strong effects of cannabinoids in medical studies when participants consumed cannabinoid isolates alone.
It is also the reason that full-spectrum hemp extracts have significantly stronger effects than individual cannabinoid isolates. (4)
Cannabis Terpene Profile
Along with flavonoids, a CBD plant’s terpene profile is what gives its characteristic smell and taste. Variations in the terpene profile cause unique effects directly but they also affect how you feel indirectly by interacting with the cannabinoid profile present in the CBD bud or extract that’s being consumed.
Learn which CBD cannabis strains will keep your head clear and productive. Check this guide to CBD cannabis varieties:
What You Get From This Guide
After learning about the 16 important terpenes contained in this guide, you’ll have the ability to identify subtle scent and taste variations in CBD varieties. You can use that information to develop an expectation of what the effects of a specific cannabis strain might be. Further still, you’ll know the exact scientific reasons why those effects occur.
And better still, you’ll be able to talk capably about the science of terpenes and CBD. You’ll have the ability to help friends make decisions about what CBD and terpenes might be right for them.
And you’ll be a more knowledgeable buyer the next time you go to a dispensary.
As an example, many CBD cannabis strains have a strong citrus smell. A strong lemony scent usually means a CBD product is high in the terpene limonene.
Limonene is known for its uplifting effects. CBD strains high in limonene energize after consumption. They’re often consumed prior to activities that require drive and concentration. Cannabis strains high in limonene are generally very social strains that are a good choice for a weekend outing with friends.
Knowing about terpenes will come to play an important role in your CBD buying decisions. Instead of feeling lost in a sea of terms, you’ll quickly be able to identify the few key qualities of a CBD that will produce the effects you’re aiming for.
Ugh, are there really 120 Terpenes?
Yes. Terpene charts show 120 different terpenes found in CBD plants. (5) Of course, the vast majority of those are only present in trace quantities. This guide will give you practical knowledge of the terpenes in CBD. We’ve narrowed the list down to 16 terpenes that will potentially affect you when you consume CBD.
The 16 terpenes in the list below are the ones that are worth knowing because they affect the way you feel or are have been shown in medical studies to have health benefits.
Which terpenes of the 16 in this guide are the most important? Which have the strongest effects? Which have the most health benefits? Keep reading or toggle the table to contents to jump to information about a specific terpene.
Limonene is a terpene common in CBD cannabis strains. It’s also found in citrus fruits like lemons and oranges.
CBD cannabis strains that have a lemon-like scent may uplift your mood.
The terpene limonene has been shown in medical studies to provide a quick pick-me-up and a subtle mood lift. (6)
Cannabis strains high in limonene are identified by their lemon-like smell and taste.
Medical studies show that cannabis strains with pleasant-smelling terpene profiles (like limonene) may even make you feel happier during stressful situations. (7)
You might want to try mixing limonene with different cannabinoids (other than CBD). Maybe try limonene with CBN (cannabinol)?
The combination of the limonene and CBN has reinforcing effects. Taken together, the combination may be both relaxing for the body and uplifting for mood.
The amplifying effect of mixing limonene with CBN is a good example of the terpene entourage effect.
More about the limonene entourage effect below.
Limonene Entourage Effect
Entourage Effect definition: terpenes and cannabinoids (like CBD and CBN) taken together will amplify and target the benefits of each compound. (8) In essence, the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. The entourage effect is also called “cannabis synergy” because cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids that add to this synergistic effect are all naturally produced by the cannabis plant.
Learning how to take CBD oil with the right complimentary terpenes is a good reason to be reading this guide. It will greatly increase the effects of the cannabinoids you’re consuming.
Maximized the terpene entourage effect will help you to get the maximum benefit from your CBD.
As you can see from the terpene profile for the Kashmir Blue strain, breeders of medical cannabis selectively cross plant genetics for cannabinoid and terpene traits.
Talking specifically about the terpene limonene, medical studies show cannabis strains with significant quantities of limonene fight stress, anxiety, depression and boost confidence. (10)
Limonene Health Benefits
Some medical studies show limonene may even have cancer-preventive properties for breast cancer and colorectal cancers. (11)
Additionally, Limonene has strong anti-inflammatory properties that may be good for everything from arthritis to premature brain aging.
Limonene’s anti-inflammatory and cholesterol dissolving properties may be helpful to cardiovascular health as well. Gut disorders like Colitis and Crohn’s disease appear to benefit, too. (12)
Though unproven, it is widely thought limonene has benefits for weight control and skincare. These claims require further study.
Interested in using CBD in your skincare routine? This 2020 medical study shows CBD applied in a cream has skincare benefits for inflammatory skin conditions and scarring.
Limonene Adverse Effects
Limonene is present in many citrus fruits. It’s likely you are already consuming some amount of the terpene limonene already.
Limonene is considered to have low human toxicity and minimal to no adverse effects in normal consumption patterns. (14)
Myrcene Smell and Taste
Myrcene is found numerous CBD cannabis strains.
It’s also found in large volumes in fruits like mango, and especially wild thyme.
Myrcene makes up a substantial percentage of the essential oil that can be distilled from cannabis.
If your CBD flower has a “fruity” aroma, there’s a good chance you’re smelling myrcene.
Myrcene Entourage Effect
If you mix myrcene isolate with a cannabinoid like CBD, you can boost the relaxing and anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects of both compounds. (15)
Myrcene helps your body uptake and make use of cannabinoids like CBD more effectively.
According to the study above, myrcene helps extend and intensify the health benefits of cannabinoids like CBD, CBN, and CBG. (16)
Myrcene doesn’t only increase the effectiveness of cannabinoids, it has health benefits of its own.
Myrcene Health Benefits
Myrcene is especially good at relieving pain.
It has been used for centuries in traditional medicines around the world. (17)
Beyond pain relief, myrcene has anti-inflammatory and muscle relaxing properties too.
When present in high doses, myrcene may act as a powerful sedative. (18)
Myrcene isolate taken with CBN (cannabinol) may even have sedative effects comparable to valium.
Is myrcene the terpene that causes the sedative “couch-lock” effect in Indica strains of cannabis?
Some scientists think so… (19)
CBD and myrcene isolate taken together help fight anxiety even when you’re feeling your most anxious.
Taking myrcene isolate with CBN can be a powerful sleep-promoting combination too.
If you’ve had a particularly crushing day, you might try adding myrcene to your evening relaxation routine.
It could be a powerful aid to your rest and recovery.
Expect CBD oil mixed with myrcene to make you pleasantly ready for a restful evening.
Does stress pile up on you like bricks?
CBD with the terpene linalool is a natural way to restore composure.
Linalool Smell and Taste
Linalool is a lavender-scented terpene found in herbs and CBD cannabis strains.
Linalool is found in over 200 species of plants making it one the most abundant terpenes.
Some fruits and vegetables contain very high concentrations of linalool.
Linalool is found in over 200 species of plants making it one of the most abundant terpenes. tell a friend
Linalool Traditional Medicine
Linalool has been used by people throughout history as a traditional medicine.
It is non-toxic to humans in common dosages though it can be an eye and skin irritant at very high concentrations. (20)
Within the body, linalool breaks down and is expelled quickly.
Linalool has remarkable health benefits.
Its effects range from anti-anxiety results to anti-bacterial attributes. (21)
As with lavender, linalool has a natural sedative effect.
According to the study below, linalool is good for eliminating daily stress and anxiety. (22)
Linalool Cancer Benefits
Linalool boosts the immune system and has promising cancer-fighting effects.
Studies show linalool may help kill cancer cells and provide protection from tumors. (24)
Linalool Immune Booster
Linalool may boost your immune system by breaking down stress.
If struggling with stress is part of your daily routine then you know how it can negatively impact your immune system.
Not enough sleep and stress-induced inflammation are precursors to infection. (25)
Linalool is also believed to affect the distribution of white blood cells.
White blood cells are your body’s immune system response to infection.
So, this terpene puts your immune system in a position to fight off infection before it occurs.
Linalool works with your body to more effectively use its own defenses.
More on this below.
‘Boosting your body’s own systems’ is a frequent theme with terpenes and CBD.
Fortifying your natural systems is central to CBD and terpenes benefits. (26)
Terpenes and CBD together expand the effectiveness of your endocannabinoid system. (27)
Your body self-regulates constantly.
Sometimes it needs a little help.
That’s where CBD and terpenes come in.
Terpenes together with CBD restore balance.
They make your ECS work better so you feel better.
Terpenes and CBD together expand the effectiveness of your endocannabinoid system. tell a friend
Linalool Safety & Toxicity
Linalool side effects are few and toxicity is low.
It is considered a generally safe compound when used as a food additive according to the FDA. (28)
Do you enjoy cannabis?
Then it’s almost guaranteed that you’ve experienced the terpene pinene.
It’s very common in cannabis strains.
Smell And Taste
Pinene is responsible for the distinctive pine-like scent in cannabis strains.
Does your cannabis smell a little bit like a pine forest?
That familiar pine scent in your cannabis is likely derived from the terpene pinene.
Like other terpenes, pinene is found in many plant species.
Pinene is also found in orange peels, rosemary, dill, and basil.
You're just as likely to come across the terpene pinene in your favorite cannabis strain as you are in a daily diet of fresh leafy greens. tell a friend
Pinene Health Benefits
According to a 2017 study, pinene has significant anti-inflammatory properties.
It also has potential cancer-related benefits.
Pinene’s anti-inflammatory properties help relieve pain. (29)
Mixing CBD with pinene makes the health benefits of each compound more effective. (30)
Here again, the potent entourage effect is at work for your benefit.
Together with full-spectrum CBD, pinene has stronger anti-inflammatory properties.
This is likely due to advantageous interactions with additional cannabinoids. (31)
CBD oil with pinene may act as a bronchodilator and open lung airways.
CBD mixtures high in pinene fight stress and anxiety in animal models. (32)
Pinene has significant benefits for hard to treat pain. (33)
Pinene may have an anesthetic effect on hard to treat pain.
This effect is similar to that of the terpene caryophyllene.
These known benefits are just the beginning.
Pinene is believed to have vast therapeutic potential. (34)
That’s quite a wide range of health benefits from one terpene.
Pinene is one of the best terpenes to look for.
Luckily, pinene is one of the most abundant terpenes in CBD cannabis strains.
A 2019 study calls pinene a “miracle” compound for its potential therapeutic benefits. (35)
Given Pinene’s list of benefits, that’s hard to argue with…
Cannabis strains with terpene profiles high in pinene will have different effects on different people.
Terpenes are consumed regularly in fruits and vegetables and believed to have minimal side effects when consumed as food.
That said, it is recommended to start off slow.
See how pinene interacts with your specific body chemistry.
Then, increase or decrease your pinene dose as you feel appropriate.
Confused about CBD dosages? There’s a CBD dosage guide right here.
Pinene Adverse Effects
Pinene has minimal side effects when consumed as food.
There is some guidance on inhalation hazards but not in dose ranges you could expect to find in cannabis or hemp plant material.
These ranges mostly concern industrial applications. (36)
Having difficulty finding something that takes away the pain but won’t get you hooked or loopy?
Does that sound like you?
Caryophyllene has some benefits you need to hear about.
Also known as Humulene, Caryophyllene is a terpene found in high CBD cannabis strains.
Caryophyllene is also found in spices like black pepper, hops, cloves, basil, and rosemary.
Caryophyllene’s flavor is a bit spicy.
Its scent is similar to black pepper.
Caryophyllene is one of the safest terpenes. (37)
It can be consumed in food in large quantities.
According to the FDA, caryophyllene is generally safe as a food additive.
Caryophyllene For Pain
Caryophyllene has many health benefits.
According to the 2013 study below, caryophyllene has significant pain-relieving properties. (39)
Caryophyllene’s pain-relieving properties are increased when taken with cannabidiol (CBD). (40)
Caryophyllene For Inflammation
Caryophyllene also has significant anti-inflammatory properties.
The 2019 study below says caryophyllene may be helpful for neurodegenerative conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer’s.
Caryophyllene’s benefits result from its ability to activate the CB2 receptor.
The CB2 receptor is the same part of the endocannabinoid system (ECS).
The CB2 receptor is the same part of the nervous system that CBD activates.
Activation of the CB2 receptor may have benefits for treating multiple sclerosis as well. (42)
The endocannabinoid system is part of your larger nervous system.
It is present throughout your brain, spine, and extremities.
Caryophyllene, like CBD, functions as a signaling compound.
It relays regulatory signals throughout your endocannabinoid system.
Caryophyllene’s effect on your ECS can help maintain good health and homeostasis (chemical balance).
Interested in learning more about the endocannabinoid system? Click on the CBD guide below.
Caryophyllene Neuroprotective Effects
Caryophyllene may have benefits for Alzheimer’s and dementia. (43)
Its effects on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease result from its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. (44)
More study is needed on human subjects to determine the extent of the benefit.
Caryophyllene For Addiction
Caryophyllene may help those with opioid dependence.
Caryophyllene increases the effects of low dose opiate painkillers. (45)
Individuals consuming opiates can take smaller doses of opiates but receive greater pain relief by adding caryophyllene.
Great pain relief from opiates in the presence of caryophyllene is a result of caryophyllene’s interaction with the CB2 receptor.
Additionally, the anti-inflammatory benefits of caryophyllene may help gut and bowel disorders (such as IBS).
In animal studies of Colitis, caryophyllene reduced symptoms and sped recovery. (46)
Caryophyllene Entourage Effect
Caryophyllene is frequently mentioned in connection with the terpene entourage effect.
The entourage effect maximizes terpene benefits and cannabinoid effects. (47)
Consumed together, caryophyllene and cannabinoids are believed to have a powerful synergistic effects.
The terpene entourage effect strengthens and lengthens the benefits of CBD and caryophyllene.
Consume your CBD more efficiently: according to a 2019 study, dabbing CBD wax or rosin is the most efficient way to consume CBD. See exactly how dabbing compares to smoking CBD flower here.
Caryophyllene Adverse Effects
Caryophyllene, like most terpenes, is recognized by the FDA as being a generally safe substance with minimal side effects when consumed as food.
And lastly, an interesting fact about caryophyllene…
Terpinene is a terpene naturally found in CBD cannabis strains.
Terpinene isolate can also be derived from cardamom and marjoram oils.
Terpinene Smell And Taste
Terpinene is a colorless liquid that smells like turpentine.
It’s found infrequently in fruits and vegetables but is in multiple cannabis strains.
Terpinene has industrial applications where it’s used as a scenting and flavoring agent.
Terpinene Health Benefits
According to a May 2019 study, terpinene has anti-bacterial and anti-microbial properties.
These properties make terpinene suitable for use in topical CBD creams.
Terpinene may have benefits for treating acne and atopic dermatitis topically. (48)
According to a 2018 study, terpinene has mild anxiety-causing effects when consumed in cannabis. (49)
If you’re interested in CBD cannabis and its effects on anxiety, check out this CBD Anxiety Guide.
Guaiol Smell And Taste
Guaiol’s smell is similar to fresh pine with hints of rose.
It has a fruit-like flavor similar to red plums.
Guaiol Health Benefits
Guaiol has anti-inflammatory effects and anti-bacterial properties. (50)
It’s a traditional medicine with a long history.
It has been used widely in Chinese medicine for centuries.
Historically, guaiol was used to treat diseases such as Gout, Arthritis, and the common sore throat.
Guaiol: Promising Cancer Benefits
Guaiol may also relieve high blood pressure.
Unfortunately, there there is little scientific evidence to back up this historical claim.
Guaiol Anxiety Effects
According to a 2018 survey of medical cannabis patients, guaiol may increase anxiety (anxiogenic effect).
Interested in scientific studies on CBD and terpenes for anxiety?
Check out the latest medical evidence of CBD’s effects on anxiety.
In a 2018 study, Guaiol was identified by medical marijuana patients as a terpene that potentially increases anxiety. (51)
Pain Relieving Effects
Interestingly, guaiol appears to have “anti-analgesic” effects.
This means guaiol may decrease the painkilling effects of CBD, cannabinoids, and other painkillers. (52)
How strong is CBD’s painkilling effect? Learn here: CBD for Pain Relief.
Do you use CBD cream for pain?
Below you’ll find out how to make your CBD cream significantly more effective.
Are you getting the most from your CBD cream?
CBD topical products with trans-nerolidol increase the CBD absorption rate.
That means trans-nerolidol might make your cream more effective.
Trans-nerolidol helps CBD penetrate the skin.
Smell And Taste
Trans-nerolidol is a secondary terpene found in some CBD cannabis strains.
It’s also found in jasmine, ginger, lavender, and tea-tree.
Trans-nerolidol has a fresh woody smell similar to tree bark.
Uses: Food Flavoring
Nerolidol is safe when consumed as a food flavoring agent and in cosmetics. (53)
Are you using a topical CBD product to help with pain?
Trans-nerolidol may help boost the pain-relieving benefits of your CBD cream.
Trans-nerolidol has properties that help CBD penetrate the skin and get absorbed by the body. (54)
Trans-nerolidol gives you a more efficient delivery of the active pain-relieving ingredients in CBD topicals.
That means the addition of a single terpene to your CBD cream may make all the ingredients more effective at fighting pain.
Additionally, trans-nerolidol has powerful anti-oxidant properties. (55)
Trans-nerolidol has anti-microbial benefits which may be helpful for certain skin conditions. (56)
Nerolidol has strong antifungal benefits.
Nerolidol fights both human and plant fungal diseases. (57)
Studies show trans-nerolidol has anti-cancer properties in animal models.
Nerolidol’s cancer-fighting properties have yet to be tested clinically in humans. (58)
More study is needed on the promising benefits of Nerolidol for specific cancers.
The terpene trans-nerolidol has powerful antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifungal properties which make it a good addition to your CBD topical cream. tell a friend
Are you having difficulty getting to sleep?
Does anxiety keep you awake?
Try CBD tea with bisabolol.
It helps change your state of mind so you welcome sleep.
Bisabolol is not found in many plants but can be found in some CBD cannabis strains.
Bisabolol Smell and Taste
Bisabolol is the primary ingredient in essential oils from chamomile flowers.
Bisabolol has a weak flowery smell and a mildly sweet taste.
Bisabolol Health Benefits
According to the 2014 study below, bisabolol has strong anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. (59)
Bisabolol may be useful in treating inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. (60)
Bisabolol For Cosmetics
Bisabolol has been used in skincare remedies for centuries.
Recently, bisabolol anti-irritant and skin healing properties have found use in the cosmetics industry. (62)
Bisabolol Adverse Effects
According to a 2013 study, in rare cases bisabolol has caused contact allergies while being used for skin inflammatory conditions.
Does arthritis cause you pain?
Find a CBD hemp strain high in carene.
Delta 3 carene is found in some high CBD hemp strains.
It’s also found in cedar trees, pine trees, bell peppers, and basil.
Carene Smell And Taste
Carene has a piney taste with a slightly bitter aftertaste.
Carene has a sweet smell that is similar to wet woodlands and cypress trees.
Appealing scent, right?
Carene For Cosmetics
Delta 3 Carene is used in cosmetics.
It is believed to be a natural anti-histamine.
Carene has excellent anti-inflammatory properties according to medical studies. (61)
In the study below, carene was examined as a potential treatment for acute skin inflammation. (62)
Carene Health Benefits
In animal models, Delta 3 Carene has shown significant bone healing abilities. (63)
Carene is may be a good choice for those with osteoporosis and arthritis.
Delta 3 Carene has anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial benefits. (64)
Though yet to be fully understood, delta 3 carene helps with memory creation and memory retention.
Hopefully, carene may have an impact on future treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
Eucalyptol, also known as cineole, is found in small quantities in CBD cannabis strains.
Eucalyptol Smell And Taste
Eucalyptol is clear and colorless.
It has a minty, slightly spicy smell and a cooling flavor.
Eucalyptol is also found in sweet basil, bay leaves, wormwood, rosemary, and common sage.
Eucalyptol is used as a scenting agent in cosmetics and fragrances.
It is also used to flavor baked goods.
Eucalyptol Health Benefits
Eucalyptol found in high CBD cannabis strains in very small quantities.
Even still, it may have medicinal benefits.
Eucalyptol has pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties. (65)
Additionally, eucalyptol (also known as 8-cineole) has been examined for:
- gastroprotective effects
- insecticidal properties (65)
Eucalyptol’s most significant health benefit may be its gastroprotective qualities. (66)
That said, Eucalyptol makes up less than .06% of the complete terpene profile of most cannabis strains.
It’s known as a minor terpene.
Eucalyptol Adverse Effects
Although eucalyptol is used as a flavoring agent in baked goods, if ingested in larger quantities it can be toxic.
Interested in learning more about the safety and toxicity of eucalyptol? Click on the European Commission guide below.
Camphene is a terpene found in CBD cannabis strains.
Camphene Smell And Taste
Camphene has a damp woodland or musky earth smell.
Camphene is used in essential oils like cypress oil, ginger oil, and citronella oil.
Camphene Health Benefits
Camphene has promising health benefits identified by medical studies.
Camphene may inhibit the growth of aggressive melanoma cancers. (67)
Camphene has shown strong antioxidant effects that may have applications in lung inflammatory diseases where oxidative stress is critical. (68)
Applied in a CBD cream, Camphene may help inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema. (69)
According to the 2016 study below, taken orally with a CBD tincture camphene lowers triglycerides and cholesterol.
Since these factors contribute to heart disease, it is believed that camphene, may be a treatment for cardiovascular disease. (70)
Borneol is one of the most exciting terpenes.
Borneol has been used for more than a thousand years in traditional medicine.
New research says borneol may help compounds cross the blood-brain barrier.
Borneol Smell and Taste
Borneol is found in cannabis, mint, and rosemary
Borneol has a spicy, minty smell and flavor.
The borneol terpene found in cannabis may be used as an insect repellant.
Borneol repels ticks and mosquitoes.
Borneol Health Benefits
Unfortunately, few peer-reviewed medical studies exist on the health benefits of borneol.
Though it has been somewhat ignored by western medicine, borneol has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 1500 years as a type of circulation aid.
In a 2017 study, borneol was found to have benefits for aiding the delivery of drugs to the brain. (72)
So, it appears borneol has the ability to help drugs pass the “blood-brain barrier.”
This means borneol can help deliver a more effective dose of medicine to the brain while protecting it from disease. (73)
In acupuncture, borneol is considered to have a wide range of health benefits including:
- digestive aid
- help with heart function
- aid in circulation.
Borneol Adverse Effects
Borneol isolate is an eye and skin irritant.
In our research, we have come across any reports of adverse effects from the modest levels of borneol present in cannabis.
Terpineol may be the compound responsible for the ‘couch-lock effect.’
The couch-lock is a sedative effect usually associated with Indica strains of cannabis.
Terpineol is found in CBD cannabis strains and pine oil.
Terpineol Smell and Taste
Terpineol is a colorless liquid with a floral scent similar to lilac flowers and apple blossom.
Terpineol has a sweet and slightly fruity flavor.
Terpineol for Relaxation
Terpineol has strong relaxing and sedation properties. (74)
Terpineol’s sedative effects are caused by its chemical structure.
Unlike the terpene linalool which derives its relaxing effect from its association with a pleasant odor, terpineol’s sedative effects result from the absorption of the compound into the bloodstream. (75)
Interested in experiencing the strongest relaxing effects from cannabinoids? Try pairing terpineol isolate with CBN (cannabinol).
Combining CBN (cannabinol) and terpineol isolate will have strong anti-anxiety and sleep-promoting effects.
Terpineol Health Benefits
Terpineol has anti-inflammatory properties that may reduce pain and inflammatory diseases. (77)
Terpineol has powerful antifungal properties.
It may even be considered a natural food preservative for fresh fruits. (78)
Valencene Smell and Taste
Do you love cannabis strains with sweet fruit smell?
If your favorite CBD cannabis strains have a strong orange or tangerine smell and flavor, they’re likely high in the terpene valencene.
Valencene has a robust citrus smell and flavor.
As you may have guessed from the name of this terpene, valencene is found in high quantities in Valencia oranges.
Because of its appealing fragrance, the terpene valencene is used in cosmetics and perfumes.
Valencene isolate can act as an insect repellant for ticks and mosquitoes.
Studies show that valencene’s effectiveness is similar to deet, the active ingredient in most chemical insect repellents. (78)
Valencene is being studied for additional health benefits including anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial benefits.
Mix valencene into a CBD tincture and it may cause an entourage effect that boosts CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties.
Valencene has significant anti-microbial properties which may be useful in topical CBD creams.
Geraniol is a terpene found in CBD cannabis strains.
It’s a primary component in rose oil and citronella oil.
Geraniol Smell And Taste
Geraniol is used in bath products for its appealing scent.
It has a fruity aroma similar to peaches and plums.
Geraniol has a mild fruity taste and is used as a flavoring agent.
It can also act as a sweet-smelling insect repellent for mosquitos.
Interestingly, geraniol is produced by the scent glands of honey bees.
Honey bees use geraniol to mark the location of nectar-producing flowers and the entrance to hives.
Geraniol Health Benefits
Geraniol health benefits are significant and extensive.
Geraniol is a neuroprotectant with sedative effects.
Geraniol may help protect the brain from neurological disorders such as dementia or Alzheimer’s. (79)
According to studies, the terpene geraniol may have benefits for treating specific cancers including:
Geraniol is believed to be a “multi-target agent” against cancer.
Multi-target agents attack cancer cells in diverse ways.
The multitargeting approach to fighting cancer makes geraniol less susceptible to adaptive resistance by cancer cells. (80)
In animal models, geraniol appears to have high antioxidant potential.
Geraniol has exceptional bioavailability when consumed orally. (81)
Terpene Side Effects
Terpenes are generally regarded as having minimal side effects.
Terpenes are present in many wild plants and food crops.
It is likely that you are already consuming many cannabis terpenes daily.
You should expect that your regular fruit and vegetable diet will share some of the same terpenes with cannabis.
So, terpenes are nothing new to your body.
Taking CBD and terpene isolates together is new.
Proceed cautiously until you understand how your body will respond.
Everyone’s body is different.
Start off slowly with any new compounds.
Dial-in your CBD and terpene dosage as you go.
Check out this simple CBD dosage guide video. Many of the same principles will apply to terpenes.
Now that you know more about the best CBD terpenes, find what works for you.
Check back with this terpene from time to time.
It will be updated regularly as new health studies are published.
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