Why Are Terpenes So Important?
In this guide, you’ll learn the exact taste, smell, health benefits and mood-altering effects of 16 terpenes you will experience in high CBD hemp strains.
- After reading this guide you’ll be able to match specific terpenes to the smells and flavors in your favorite CBD strain.
- Most importantly, you’ll know how each terpene will affect you—which terpenes are uplifting and which are “couch-lock” relaxing?
- Learn to spot the CBD strain with the perfect terpene profile for you.
- Choose the right terpenes and you’ll make your cannabidiol benefits stronger and longer—that’s called the entourage effect. Learn to make the most of it right now.
Let’s dive in and tailor the perfect CBD terpene experience just for you.
Tap on the terpene icons below. You’ll be taken directly to the information that interests you.
CBD Terpene Guide
Delta 3 CareneVideo
What are hemp terpenes?
High CBD hemp strains are full of delicious terpenes with broad health benefits.
Terpene definition: aromatic compounds created in cannabis that help create their smell and flavor.
They are a group of compounds that give each high CBD hemp strains its unique smell and flavor.
The exact same terpenes found in hemp are also present in many fruits and vegetables.
Terpenes are truly everywhere.
In fact, you’re eating some of the more common terpenes found in hemp whenever you eat a salad.
Amazingly, terpenes have significant health benefits and mood-altering properties.
Terpenes relieve stress, anxiety, depression, insomnia and are helpful with a variety of mental health issues.
Terpenes have the power to:
- relax mind and muscles
- anti-inflammation benefits
- fight stress and anxiety
- and more
Terpenes and terpene oil are more beneficial when taken together with CBD.
Terpenes amplify and help target CBD health benefits.
Terpene isolates taken together with CBD oil work double-time to boost the health benefits of each compound.
Do you want to enhance the relaxing effect of CBD?
Then you could add the terpene linalool to your CBD oil.
Want to deepen the sedative effect of CBN so you can sleep better?
Then you might try a CBD flower or hemp strain high in the terpene terpineol.
Terpineol is believed to be responsible for the “couch-lock effect” caused by some Indica cannabis strains.
When CBD and terpenes work together to intensify each other, that’s called the “entourage effect.”
More on this CBD and terpene double-team effect later.
Terpenes are aromatic compounds (hydrocarbons) made in hemp and plant species.
Variations in the terpene profile of hemp strains cause their unique smell and flavor.
You can even identify the particular terpene profile of a hemp strain with your nose.
Many high CBD hemp strains have a strong citrus smell.
That’s how you know it has a terpene profile high in limonene.
Limonene is a hemp terpene known for its uplifting effects.
Knowing about terpenes and the individual effects of each will help you pick the perfect CBD hemp strain for how you want to feel today.
Terpene charts show 211 different terpenes in high CBD hemp.
The 16 in this terpene list are the most frequently experienced types you will smell and taste in full-spectrum CBD products or hemp flower nugs.
So, let’s get nose deep into the exact smell, taste, and benefits of the specific terpenes you’re likely to encounter in your next CBD experience…
Limonene is one of the most common terpenes found in high CBD hemp strains.
Have you tasted it before?
I bet you have.
The same limonene in hemp is also found in citrus fruits like lemons.
Research says that if you’re feeling down, then try a CBD strain with a lemony scent.
It’ll provide a quick ‘pick-me-up’ and a subtle mood lift.
Hemp strains high in limonene (or CBD tinctures with limonene isolate) smell and taste like fresh citrus.
Hemp strains with pleasant-smelling terpene profiles high in limonene have uplifting effects on mood..
Limonene can also be taken in combination with cannabinoids to increase the effects of both.
Try limonene with CBN (cannabinol) to have a mood-lifting relaxation effect on your mind and body.
That’s an example of the entourage effect of terpenes and cannabinoids working together.
Entourage effect definition: when terpenes and CBD work together to intensify and target the benefits of both.
Learning to dose CBD oil with the terpene entourage effect in mind will make your CBD health benefits more effective.
The entourage effect increases the strength and effectiveness of your CBD product.
As you can see from the terpene list below for the Kashmir Blue cannabis chemovar, breeders of medical hemp select for cannabinoid content and terpene content when creating new high CBD strains with specific benefits.
For example, medical studies show hemp strains high in limonene fight stress and anxiety, depression and boost confidence.
Limonene health benefits:
According to the peer-reviewed study above, limonene has been shown to have cancer-preventive chemical properties especially for breast cancer and colorectal cancers.
Additionally, Limonene has strong anti-inflammatory properties.
Limonene anti-inflammatory and cholesterol dissolving properties can be helpful for cardiovascular health—also gut disorders like Colitis and Crohn’s disease.
Limonene has been shown in multiple studies to aid in treating heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD).
Though controversial, it is widely thought in the supplements industry that limonene has beneficial properties for weight control and skincare,
These claims do require further study.
Limonene Adverse Effects
Adverse Effects: Limonene is present in many citrus fruits and is considered to have low human toxicity and minimal to no adverse effects in normal consumption patterns.
CBD with the terpene myrcene can melt your stress and anxiety away.
Myrcene is found in high CBD hemp strains.
It’s also found in very high quantities in fruits like mango.
If you have a fruity smelling CBD hemp strain, there’s a good chance myrcene is what you’re smelling.
Myrcene helps your body uptake and absorb CBD more effectively.
According to the study above, myrcene helps extend and intensify the health benefits of multiple cannabinoids like CBD, CBN, and CBG.
Not only does myrcene increase the effectiveness of CBD, but it also has health benefits of its own.
Myrcene has strong pain-relieving properties and has been used for centuries in traditional medicine systems throughout the world.
Beyond pain relief, myrcene is an anti-inflammatory and muscle relaxer.
When present in high doses, it can act as a powerful sedative.
Myrcene isolate taken with the cannabinoid CBN is a powerful sedative with similar effects to lorazepam.
Is myrcene the terpene that causes the super relaxing “couch-lock” effect common in some indica cannabis strains? Some scientists think so…
CBN and myrcene isolate can be taken together to help calm anxiety and relieve pain.
Taking myrcene isolate and CBD for sleep is a good combination to fight anxiety and help you sleep.
CBD Hemp strains with high quantities of myrcene are usually chosen for their relaxing effects on the mind and body.
Try myrcene as part of your end of day routine to help you feel relaxed after a crushing day.
CBD oil with high amounts of myrcene can help you recover from a stressful day and be ready for a restful evening.
Do strain and pressure weigh you down during the day?
Does stress pile up like bricks on your shoulders?
A CBD tincture with the terpene linalool might be just the relaxing relief you need.
Linalool is a lavender-scented terpene found in herbs and high CBD hemp strains.
In fact, linalool is found in over 200 species of plants making one the most prolific terpenes.
Some fruits and vegetables even contain very high amounts of linalool.
Linalool is not toxic to humans in common dosages.
In the body, linalool breaks down and is expelled quickly.
Linalool has been used by people throughout history as traditional medicine.
It has notable health benefits ranging from relaxation to anti-bacterial properties.
Linalool’s pleasing smell is used as a scenting agent in hygiene products like soaps, shampoos, and skin care lotions.
Like lavender, it has a natural sedative effect.
According to the medical study below, linalool is good for combating daily stress and anxiety.
Multiple peer-reviewed medical studies have found linalool to be an effective compound for fighting anxiety disorders like Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
Linalool shows promise for helping to boost the immune system and fight cancer. Studies have shown that linalool can help kill cancer cells and potentially provide some protection from tumors.
By breaking down stress, linalool helps boost your immune system.
Accumulated stress is known to disrupt your immune system’s ability to function.
Not enough sleep and stress-induced inflammation are precursors to catching a cold or an infection.
Additionally, Linalool is believed to help with the proper distribution of white blood cells throughout your body.
White blood cells are your body’s immune system response to infection.
So, this terpene helps fight off the infection before it takes hold.
It works with your body to more effectively use its own defenses.
‘Boosting your body’s own systems’ is a theme you will find is frequently repeated when learning about CBD terpenes.
It’s at the heart of what gives CBD and terpenes their wide-ranging health benefits.
CBD effects a critical regulatory system in your body called the endocannabinoid system (ECS).
According to the study below, the proper functioning of your endocannabinoid system is critical to your good health.
Taking terpenes and CBD together boosts the effectiveness of your endocannabinoid system.
Your body can self-regulate but sometimes it needs a little help.
That’s where CBD and terpenes come in.
Terpenes taken with CBD concentrate restore balance to your ECS and make you feel better.
Linalool Adverse Effects
Linalool side effects are few to none.
It is considered a generally safe compound when used as a food additive according to the FDA.
The fresh smell of a pine forest always makes me feel better.
Jammed in the middle of traffic?
Would a quick trip to a pine forest do the trick?
Bring on the pinene, please.
Pinene is a terpene frequently found in high CBD hemp strains.
When your hemp or CBD product has a “piney” scent, then you’re in luck. It likely has a terpene profile high in pinene.
Like other terpenes, pinene is common in many plant species—pine trees among them.
It’s also found in orange peels, rosemary, dill, basil, and many food plants.
According to the peer-reviewed medical study below, pinene has substantial health benefits.
Pinene has significant anti-inflammatory properties that can help relieve pain and have wide-ranging health benefits.
When consumed with CBD, pinene’s health benefits are more effective and targeted.
Here again, is the powerful entourage effect at work.
Consumed with full-spectrum CBD, pinene can be expected to have strong anti-inflammatory properties.
Additionally, CBD oil with pinene can act as a bronchodilator and open lung airways.
CBD tincture and terpene isolate mixtures high in pinene also fight stress and anxiety.
According to the study below, pinene has benefits for hard to treat pain.
Pinene is said to have an anaesthetic effect on hard to treat pain similar to caryophyllene, another terpene described in this guide.
According to a survey of peer-reviewed medical studies, these health benefits just scratching the surface of the wider potential for the therapeutic benefit of pinene.
Whew, that’s quite a wide range of health benefits from pinene.
It’s definitely one of the best terpenes to look for when choosing CBD oil, flower or tinctures.
It’s also one of the most frequent terpenes in hemp strains.
You should expect hemp with terpene profiles high in pinene to have different effects on different people.
Terpenes are consumed regularly in fruits and vegetables and believed to have minimal side effects when consumed as food.
That said, it is recommended to start off slow to see how pinene interacts with your specific body chemistry.
Then, increase or decrease your pinene dose as you feel appropriate.
Pinene Adverse Effects
Pinene has few to no side effects when consumed as food. There is some guidance on inhalation hazards but not in dose ranges you could expect to find in cannabis or hemp plant material. These ranges mostly concern industrial applications.
If you have chronic pain, being locked in an airline seat might feel like medieval torture.
I’ve been there.
It wrecks your body and the pain doesn’t go away once you disembark.
Try CBD with caryophyllene isolate to help with pain from long flights.
On arrival, you’ll be ready to enjoy your destination.
Caryophyllene is found in spices such as black pepper, hops, cloves, basil, and rosemary.
It has a spicy flavor with a peppery smell.
Caryophyllene is one of the safest terpenes.
It can be consumed as food in large quantities.
According to the FDA, caryophyllene is a “generally safe” organic compound with minimal side effects.
Caryophyllene is an intriguing terpene with many health benefits.
Many people take caryophyllene for pain.
According to the study below, caryophyllene has broad pain-reducing properties.
Caryophyllene is an especially promising pain reliever when taken in combination with cannabidiol.
It also has good anti-inflammatory properties.
Interestingly, its anti-inflammatory properties are thought to help with brain aging.
Caryophyllene is believed to have health benefits because it activates the CB2 receptor in the body’s endocannabinoid system.
The endocannabinoid system is part of your nervous system and exists in your brain and extremities.
Check out these CBD and terpene benefits for brain aging: Study below
This means caryophyllene activates the same part of your nervous system as CBD–the CB2 receptor.
Caryophyllene may have health benefits for treating Alzheimer’s syndrome and dementia.
But, more study is needed on human subjects.
Caryophyllene and Opiate Addiction
Caryophyllene has benefits for decreasing dependence on opiates.
Caryophyllene increases the painkilling properties of low dose opiates.
Patients consuming caryophyllene plus opiates can take smaller quantities of opiates but receive greater pain relief from the lower dose.
This boost to painkillers is something like the CBD entourage effect.
The CBD entourage effect occurs when terpenes and full-spectrum CBD are taken together.
The entourage effect lengthens and strengthens the effects of both compounds.
Additionally, the anti-inflammatory health benefits of caryophyllene are helpful in gut and bowel disorders.
In tests of animals struggling with pain from Colitis, caryophyllene reduced symptoms and helped recovery.
Caryophyllene is frequently found in high CBD hemp strains.
The entourage effect strengthens and lengthens the health benefits of CBD and caryophyllene.
It amplifies and targets the beneficial effects of CBD on your endocannabinoid system.
Your endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a critical system for regulating your body.
Your ECS helps to maintain your good mental and physical health.
Caryophyllene Adverse Effects
Caryophyllene, like most terpenes, is recognized by the FDA as being a generally safe substance with minimal side effects.
Since you read this whole article, I will throw in a little “caryophyllene trivia.” I found this fact interesting…
Terpinene is a colorless liquid that has a turpentine-like smell.
It is naturally found in the high CBD hemp strains.
Terpinene isolate can be derived from cardamom and marjoram oils.
It is not a common terpene in fruits and vegetables but is found in multiple hemp strains.
Terpinene has industrial uses as a scenting and flavoring agent.
Terpinene is believed to have anti-bacterial and anti-microbial properties but there hasn’t been much research done on this terpene.
That said, terpinene may have effects on anxiety. A 2018 survey of medical marijuana users rated strains with terpinene as having strong anxiety effects, especially for Social Anxiety Disorder.
Guaiol (pronounced “gweye-all”) has a smell similar to pine trees with hints rose.
It is found in high CBD hemp strains but also in Cypress Pine.
Guaiol is known for its anti-inflammatory effects and anti-bacterial properties.
Historically, it has been used to treat diseases such as Gout, Arthritis, and even the common sore throat.
Guaiol is a traditional medicine widely used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine.
New peer-reviewed medical research says that the terpene guaiol may have anticancer benefits for non-small cell lung cancer.
It is also believed to help relieve high blood pressure. This effect is somewhat in doubt, though. It has not been backed up by scientific study.
Guaiol may be especially good at decreasing anxiety. In a 2018 study on the anti-anxiety effects of medical marijuana, Guaiol was identified by medical marijuana patients as a terpene that provides relief from anxiety.
Do you use CBD skin cream?
Are you getting the effects you want from your CBD cream?
If not, try a CBD cream product with the terpene trans-nerolidol.
The trans-nerolidol could significantly increase the amount of CBD your skin absorbs.
Trans-nerolidol helps CBD penetrate the skin so more is absorbed where you need it.
Trans-nerolidol is a secondary terpene naturally found in some high CBD hemp strains.
It is also found in jasmine, ginger, lavender, and tea-tree.
Trans-nerolidol has a woody smell that is often compared to the smell of tree bark.
Trans-nerolidol is said to have a fruity citrus-like flavor.
While usually used in cosmetic products, the FDA believes Nerolidol is safe enough to be consumed as a food flavoring agent.
Trans-nerolidol is the perfect terpene to match with your CBD for skincare products.
Also, if you’re using a topical CBD product to help with pain, try looking for CBD creams with trans-nerolidol.
Trans-nerolidol has properties that help CBD penetrate the skin.
In fact, nerolidol has been shown to increase skin penetration and diffusion of some active ingredients by up to 2000%. Amazing.
So, trans-nerolidol can give you a more effective CBD dose of CBD from your topical CBD cream.
Trans-nerolidol also has strong anti-oxidant properties.
It can provide you with additional anti-microbial health benefits in your topical CBD products.
Nerolidol has also been shown to have strong antifungal benefits against both human and plant pathogens.
Studies show trans-nerolidol has anti-cancer properties in animals but its cancer-fighting properties have not been tested clinically in humans.
More study is needed before it is known exactly how effective trans-nerolidol is against specific cancers in humans.
Do you have trouble falling asleep?
Trouble getting your brain to shut down at the end of the day?
Do thoughts toss and turn in your mind keeping you awake?
It really helps you cross over into a state of mind that welcomes sleep.
Bisabolol is not found in many plants but it can be found in high CBD hemp strains.
Bisabolol is the primary ingredient in essential oils from chamomile flowers.
It has a weak flowery smell and a mildly sweet taste.
According to the medical study below, bisabolol has strong anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties.
These therapeutic properties of bisabolol may make bisabolol useful in treating inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis,
Bisabolol has been used in skincare for centuries.
It is commonly used in cosmetics for its anti-irritant properties and perceived skin healing properties.
If you’re planning on using a CBD cream for skincare, try a CBD cream with bisabolol terpene isolate for the best results.
Bisabolol Adverse Effects
In rare cases bisabolol has caused contact allergies.
Delta 3 Carene
If you struggle with pain because of joint swelling or arthritis do yourself a favor and find a CBD hemp strain high in carene.
Delta 3 carene terpene is naturally created in certain high CBD hemp strains.
It’s also found in cedar trees, pine trees, bell peppers, and basil.
Carene has a sweet smell that has been described as similar to wet woodlands and cypress trees.
Quite an appealing scent, right?
Delta 3 Carene is used in modern cosmetics and is believed to be a natural anti-histamine.
It is thought to have excellent anti-inflammatory properties in animal models.
In the study below, it was found to be a potential treatment in cases of acute inflammation.
Delta 3 Carene also has bone healing benefits that make carene for osteoporosis and arthritis a natural choice for those with consistent pain.
Delta 3 Carene has anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antibacterial benefits.
Though yet to be fully understood, delta 3 carene helps with memory creation and memory retention.
This promising new research will hopefully have an impact on future treatments for Alzheimer’s syndrome and dementia.
Eucalyptol, also known as cineole, is found in small quantities in cannabis and high CBD hemp strains.
Eucalyptol is clear and colorless with a minty, slightly spicy smell and cooling flavor.
Eucalyptol is also found in sweet basil, bay leaves, wormwood, rosemary, and common sage.
Eucalyptol is used as a scenting agent in cosmetics and fragrances.
It is also used to flavor baked goods. Yum.
The Eucalyptol found in high CBD hemp strains may have medicinal benefits even though it is found in very small quantities in hemp.
It’s been shown to have pain-relieving properties.
Additionally, eucalyptol has been examined for its antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal and anti-inflammatory properties among others.
Eucalyptol’s greatest health benefit may be its gastroprotective qualities according to the exciting peer-reviewed study below.
That said, Eucalyptol makes up less than .06% of the complete terpene profile of hemp.
So, it’s a relatively minor terpene with regard to overall health benefits derived from CBD hemp strains unless you are consuming CBD concentrates like live rosin.
Camphene is a terpene found in high CBD hemp strains.
The camphene is commonly mistaken for the terpene pinene.
Both pinene and camphene have a damp woodland or musky earth smell.
Camphene is used in essential oils like cypress oil, ginger oil, and citronella oil.
Camphene Health Benefits
The camphene found in high CBD hemp strains has interesting beneficial properties.
Camphene appears to have some promise for treating aggressive forms of melanoma cancer in humans according to this exciting peer-reviewed medical study.
Camphene also appears to be a strong antioxidant that may have some applications in lung inflammatory diseases where oxidative stress is critical.
Applied in a CBD cream, Camphene may help the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema.
According to the medical study below, when taken orally with a CBD tincture camphene lowers triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood.
Since these factors contribute to heart disease, it is believed that camphene holds promise to be a treatment for cardiovascular disease.
Borneol is one of the more interesting terpenes found in high CBD hemp strains.
Borneol has been used for more than a thousand years in traditional medicine practices around the world.
Borneol is also in herbs including high CBD hemp strains but also in mint and rosemary.
It has a spicy, minty smell and flavor.
The borneol terpene found in hemp is also used as an insect repellant.
According to research, it may have some benefit repelling ticks and mosquitoes.
Borneol Health Benefits
Unfortunately, few peer-reviewed medical studies have been done on the health benefits of this interesting terpene.
One study does suggest that borneol (taken together with conventional cancer treatments) may aid in the treatment of specific types of ovarian cancer.
Though it has been somewhat ignored by western medicine, borneol has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 1500 years as a type of circulation aid.
In a 2017 peer-reviewed medical study, borneol was found to be a promising drug delivery agent for the brain.
It appears borneol has the ability to aid drugs in crossing the “blood-brain barrier.”
In acupuncture, borneol is considered to have a wide range of health benefits.
Borneol is believed to be a digestive aid, helps keep the heart in good function and aid with circulation.
Borneol Adverse Effects
Borneol isolate is an eye and skin irritant but we have not heard of any adverse effects occurring from coming in contact with the levels of borneol present in hemp.
Are you ready to relax?
…like, padlock yourself to the couch relax?
Sometimes, you just want to veg and finish a whole Netflix series.
I know the feeling.
No judgment here…
That’s where the hemp terpene terpineol comes in handy.
Terpineol is the compound responsible for the (in)famous ‘couch-lock effect.’
Terpineol is naturally found in high CBD hemp strains.
Terpineol can also be found in pine oil.
Terpineol is a colorless liquid with a floral smell similar to the scent of lilac flowers and apple blossom.
Terpineol has a sweet, slightly fruity flavor.
Terpineol for Relaxation
Terpineol is the compound behind the ‘couch-lock effect.’
Terpineol has strong relaxing and sedative properties.
Terpineol’s sedative effects are caused by its molecular structure.
Unlike the relaxing terpene linalool, terpineol’s sedative effects come from the absorption of the compound rather than an association with a particular smell.
For added entourage effect, try pairing terpineol isolate with CBN (cannabinol).
Combining CBN (cannabinol) and terpineol isolate in a CBD cocktail or wax will have strong anti-anxiety and sleep-promoting effects.
Terpineol Health Benefits
Terpineol appears to inhibit growth and induces tumor cell death in small cell lung carcinoma cancer, according to a peer-reviewed medical study.
Terpineol has anti-inflammatory properties that may be beneficial for treating pain and inflammatory diseases.
Terpineol has very strong antifungal health benefits and may even be considered as a natural food preservative for fresh fruits.
Do you love hemp strains that have a sweet fruit smell?
If your favorite CBD hemp strain has a strong orange or tangerine smell and flavor, there is a good chance it’s high in valencene.
Valencene is found in high quantities in Valencia oranges.
It’s used in cosmetics and perfumes because of its appealing fragrance.
Valencene isolate can act as an insect repellant for ticks and mosquitoes.
Valencene is also being studied for additional health benefits including anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial benefits.
Mixed into a CBD tincture, Valencene has anti-inflammatory properties.
It also has strong anti-microbial properties when applied with a topical CBD cream.
Geraniol is a tasty terpene naturally found in high CBD hemp strains.
It’s a primary component in rose oil and citronella oil.
Geraniol is used in bath products for its appealing scent.
It has a fruity aroma similar to peaches and plums.
Geraniol has a mild fruity taste and is used as a flavoring agent in many products.
It can also act as a sweet-smelling insect repellent for mosquitos.
Interestingly, geraniol is produced by the scent glands of honey bees.
Honey bees use geraniol to mark the location of nectar-producing flowers and the entrance to hives.
Geraniol Health Benefits
Geraniol health benefits are significant and wide-ranging.
It has been recognized as a neuroprotectant.
According to the peer-reviewed medical study below, Geraniol may have benefits for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
Geraniol may have benefits for treating specific cancers including:
Geraniol is believed to be a “multi-target agent” against cancer which means that it attacks cancer cells in different ways which makes it less susceptible to adaptive resistance by the cancer cells.
In animal models, geraniol appears to have high antioxidant potential and exceptional bioavailability when consumed as an oral product.
Terpene Side Effects
Terpenes’ side effects are minimal.
Terpenes are present in many wild plants and food crops around the world.
It is likely that you are already consuming many of the same terpenes found naturally in high CBD hemp strains.
It’s common to find some of the same terpenes in hemp and your regular fruit and vegetable diet.
Taking CBD and terpene isolates together is exciting because they help intensify and target the health benefits you get from CBD.
That said, everyone’s body is different.
Start off slowly with any health or mood-altering compounds.
Then dial in your CBD and terpene dosage as you go.
Now that you know more about the terpenes available in high CBD hemp strains, you have the ability to find what works for you.
Check back with this article from time to time. It will be updated regularly as new health studies are published.
Hemp and terpenes are now legal.
Peer-reviewed medical research by respected institutions is just getting started.
The full range of benefits of CBD and terpenes is yet to be discovered.